What is Stone Dressing? : 5 Steps and Methods of Stone Dressing

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We will discuss the stone dressing, its methods, and stages. Before moving to the Dressing of Stone, we will know about Quarrying.

 

A. What is the Quarrying of Stone?

✔ Quarrying of stones is the art of extracting stones from the rock beds. The place from which the stones are obtained (by digging or blasting) is known as a ‘Quarry.’

It can be done manually using hand tools or with the help of machines.

✔ Blasting with explosives is another method used in the Quarrying of Stone.

✔ The different methods of Quarrying are:

a. By digging

b. By heating

c. By wedging

d. By blasting

Read More: Quarrying and Methods of Quarrying of Stone 

 

 

B. What is Stone Dressing?

✔ Dressing is the process of giving proper size, shape, and finish to the roughly broken stones obtained from the quarry bed.

✔ The Dressing can be done manually with hand tools like Gad, hammers, chisels, etc, or also can be done using machines.

✔ Objectives of Dressing include reducing size, shaping, and obtaining an attractive finish.

Read More: 20+ Tools used in stone dressing.

 

 

C. What are the Stages in the Stone Dressing?

✔ Sizing: Irregular quarried rocks or stones are cut into required dimensions by removing extra portions, using hammers, chisels, or cutting machines.

Shaping: Extra projections in the Stone or rocks are removed to shape the Stone. This process is done after cutting of Stone.

✔ Planing: Clearing off all irregularities from the Surface is done. Simply, it includes the process of making surfaces uniform.

✔ Finishing:  The stone surface is rubbed with an abrasive material like silicon carbide to achieve a smoother finish.

✔ Polishing:  Stones like limestone, marble, and granite are polished by hand or machine to enhance their attractiveness.

 

D. What are the Main Objectives of Stone Dressing?

a. Size Reduction:

Purpose: Size reduction is done to make big rocks smaller so it becomes easier to handle them.

Process: Large rocks are broken down into smaller pieces using hammers or machines.

Importance: It helps to move and work with rocks more easily.

 

b. Proper Shaping:

Purpose: Proper shaping gives rocks the right shape.

Process: Tools like chisels and saws are used to cut or shape rocks.

Importance: Make sure rocks fit perfectly in buildings.

 

c. Proper Finish:

Purpose: A proper finish is required to improve the aesthetic of the stones or rocks.

Process: Polishing or grinding of the rocks is done to get a smooth and shiny surface.

Importance: It makes rocks look pleasant and can make them last longer.

 

E. What are the methods of Dressing Stones?

 

a. Pitched Faced Dressing:

Pitched Faced Dressing

✔ Stone is dressed along all edges of its face using a mason’s hammer and pitching tool.

✔ The edges are level, in the same plane, and perfectly square with the stone’s base.

✔ The minimum width of dressing around the four edges is 25 mm.

✔ The appearance is of a natural rounded cobblestone.

 

b. Hammer Dressing:

Hammer Dressing

✔ Utilizes a flat face of a scabbling or spalling hammer to chip off sharp corners.

✔ Stone has a comparatively even surface and no sharp corners.

✔ Dressing on the face should not exceed 40 mm.

 

c. Rock Facing Dressed:

Rock Facing Dressed

✔ Minimum 25 mm wide fine chisel marks at the four edges.

✔ Sharp corners knocked off with a scabbling hammer.

✔ Chisel drafts made along edges for a level appearance.

✔ Extra stone in the center left raised to imitate a rock-like surface.

 

d. Rough Tooling Dressed:

Rough Tooling Dressed

✔ Used for masonry work requiring regular plane faces.

✔ Surface has 4 to 5 cm wide bands parallel to tool marks.

✔ Edges and corners are squared and true.

✔ Depressions on the Surface are allowed, but the gap between the Surface and a straight edge should not exceed 3 mm.

 

e. Punched Dressing:

Punched Dressing

✔ Further Dressing of a rough-tooled surface to show parallel ridges.

✔ Chisel marks are left on the Surface.

✔ The depth of depressions should not exceed 3 mm.

 

f. Closed Picked Dressing:

✔ Further refinement of punched-dressed stone for a finer surface.

✔ Gaps between the Surface and a straight edge should not exceed 1.5 mm.

✔ Dressed with a pointed chisel to form small pits.

 

g. Fine Tooling:

Fine Tooling

✔ Obtained by further dressing a closed, picked surface.

✔ Projections are removed, and a reasonably smooth surface is achieved.

✔ The Surface should have 3 to 4 lines per centimeter width.

✔ Commonly adopted for ashlar work.

Read Also: Tools Used for Stone Dressing
Verified Article By Er. Madhu Krishna Poudel

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