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A penstock may be defined as a sluice or gate or intake structure that regulates water flow, or an enclosed pipe that provides water to hydro turbines and sewerage systems. The term is inherited from the technology of mill ponds and watermills.
They are usually utilized at mill sites to maintain the flow of water through the mill wheel, or to pen water into a mill pool.
1. Hydroelectric Systems and Dams
Penstocks for hydroelectric installations are usually provided with a gate system and a surge tank. They can be a combination of many elements such as anchor block, drain valve, air bleed valve, and support piers depending on the application.
Flow is controlled by turbine operation and is made zero when turbines are not in operation. It is especially utilized in polluted water systems and requires to be maintained hot water washing, manual cleaning, antifouling coatings, and desiccation.
The term is also utilized in irrigation dams to guide the channels directing to and from high-pressure sluice gates.
They are also utilized in mine tailings dam construction. The penstock is located fairly near to the center of the tailings dam and built up utilizing penstock rings.
These maintain the water level, letting the slimes settle out of the water. This water is then piped beneath the tailings dam back to the plant through a penstock pipeline.
2. Uses of Penstock
It is mostly utilized in water management systems such as surface water drainage and foul water sewers.
It supplies a means of isolation of discharges and controlling the flow of water while providing it to waste management facilities or power plants.
Penstocks are integrated into the surface water management systems (drainage) of many landfill sites. Attenuation lagoons are made to hold stormwater, limiting the discharge from the site to the pre-development rate (green field rate).
They are established at the outfall from the lagoon so that in the occasional event that the surface water evolves contaminated the penstock may be sealed.
This will have the effect of isolating the site from the watercourse, controlling contamination of the environment.
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