Sahlmann H, Sherif W (2024)

**Publication Type:** Journal article

**Publication year:** 2024

**Book Volume:** 41

**Article Number:** 215006

**Journal Issue:** 21

The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the applicability of machine learning techniques and in particular neural network quantum states in the context of loop quantum gravity, albeit for a simplified theory. We consider 3-dimensional Euclidean gravity in a gauge theoretical formulation in a certain weak coupling limit due to Smolin, and show that the gauge group becomes Abelian, resulting in U ( 1 ) 3 BF-theory. The theory is quantised using loop quantum gravity methods. The kinematical degrees of freedom are truncated, on account of computational feasibility, by fixing a graph and deforming the algebra of the holonomies to impose a cutoff on the charge vectors. This leads to a quantum theory related to U q ( 1 ) 3 BF-theory. The effect of imposing the cutoff on the charges is examined. We also implement the quantum volume operator of 3d loop quantum gravity. Most importantly we compare two constraints for the quantum model obtained: a master constraint enforcing curvature and Gauß constraint, as well as a combination of a quantum Hamilton constraint constructed using Thiemann’s strategy and the Gauß master constraint. The two constraints are solved using the neural network quantum state ansatz, demonstrating its ability to explore models which are out of reach for exact numerical methods. The solutions spaces are quantitatively compared and although the forms of the constraints are radically different, the solutions turn out to have a surprisingly large overlap. We also investigate the behavior of the quantum volume in solutions to the constraints.

Hanno Sahlmann
Professur für Theoretische Physik
Waleed Sherif
Chair for Theoretical Physics III (Quantum Gravity)

**APA:**

Sahlmann, H., & Sherif, W. (2024). Towards quantum gravity with neural networks: solving quantum Hamilton constraints of 3d Euclidean gravity in the weak coupling limit. *Classical and Quantum Gravity*, *41*(21). https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6382/ad7c14

**MLA:**

Sahlmann, Hanno, and Waleed Sherif. "Towards quantum gravity with neural networks: solving quantum Hamilton constraints of 3d Euclidean gravity in the weak coupling limit." *Classical and Quantum Gravity* 41.21 (2024).

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