Difference Between Soil and Rock: Types of Soil and Rocks

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Soil is defined as an unconsolidated material that comprises solid particles and voids.

The void may comprise either air only, water, or both air and water. If the void is totally occupied by water, then the soil is said to be saturated soil and if the voids are totally occupied by air, then the soil is said to be dry soil. The difference Between Soil and Rock are discussed below.

Soil is used as construction material in various civil engineering projects and it supports structural foundations.

Rock is defined as a natural aggregate of mineralogical composition bounded by strong and cohesive force.

Rocks are an important type of construction material used extensively from primitive times.

Various types of constructions such as stone houses, gabion walls, etc are constructed throughout the world.


Difference Between Soil and Rock





  1. Difference Between Soil and Rock  

The difference between soil and rock are as follows: 

1.Soil is prepared when the disintegration of rock occurs.Rock is formed when the molten magma gets cools downs after reaching the earth’s surface.
2.Soil is loose mass.Rock is hard to mass.
3.It is used as filling materials on construction sites.It is used as masonry to construct walls, foundations, etc.
4.Soil is a very fine size.Rocks are large in size.
5.Soils are porous and permeable.Generally, rocks are hard and impermeable.





  2. Type of Soils  

On the basis of the formation of soils, it can be divided into residual soils and transported soils.


Type of Soils


a. Residual Soils

The soils remain at the place of formation of soils after the disintegration of rocks. The characteristics of residual soil are similar to parent rock characteristics.

b. Transported soils

The soils are transported a far distance from the place of formation due to the action of different geological agents such as wind, water, glacier, etc. The characteristics of transported soil are different from parent rock characteristics. Soil deposits after transportation by a geological agent.

Also, Soil is classified into four types:

a. Sandy Soil

The type of soil is sand. It is made of tiny particles of weathered rock.

b. Silt Soil

The type of soil is much tinier particles compared to sandy soil and is produced up of rock and other mineral particles, which are tinier than sand and larger than clay.

c. Clay Soil

The type of soil is the tiniest particle among the types of soil. The particles in this soil are closely packed together with each other having no or negligible airspace.

d. Loamy Soil

Loam is the combination of sand, silt, and clay such that the advantageous possessions of each are retained.






  3. Type of Rocks  

There are three kinds of rock are as follows:


Igneous Rock


1. Igneous Rock

The types of rocks that are formed by the cooling down of molten lava are known as Igneous Rocks.

Example: Diabase, Diorite, Gabbro, Granite, Pegmatite, and Peridotite.


2. Sedimentary Rock

The type of rock that is formed by the gathering or deposition of mineral or organic particles at the Earth’s surface or underwater bodies is known as Sedimentary rock.

Examples: Sandstone, Limestone, and Shale


3. Metamorphic Rock

The type of rock that is formed by igneous and sedimentary rocks due to the action of pressure and temperature.

Examples: Phyllite, Schist, Gneiss, Quartzite, and Marble.


This was for the Difference Between Soil and Rock.




Read Also: Formation Of Soils



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