Table of Contents
What is building?
✔ A building is an enduring structure pitched as a dwelling, shelter, or installation for human activity and storage.
✔ An office building could be the best permanent installation or construction example. It provides a detailed methodology to ensure the consequential edifice’s safety and durability.
✔ It entails several stages, i.e., design, material selection, planning, and construction. Properly implementing these measures ensures the structure serves its arranged and intended objective for a symbolic period.
What is a building component?
✔ A component is typically a self-contained piece of a building or other structure that can be constructed with different parts to initiate a more complicated item.
What are the three major elements of a building?
What are the two standard components of a building?
✔ Superstructure: above ground
✔ Substructure: below ground
What is the most integral part of a building?
What are the foremost functions of a building?
✔ work and living space
What are the types of buildings?
I. Residential Buildings: Typically operated for residential purposes, i.e., houses, flats, and condominiums.
II. Educational Buildings: Operated for academic ambitions, i.e., schools, colleges, and universities.
III. Institutional Buildings: Employed for institutional objectives, i.e., hospitals, lockups, and mental health facilities.
IV. Assembly Buildings: Operated for congregation and assembly, i.e., theaters, convention centers, and sports auditoria.
V. Business Buildings: Utilized for business aims, i.e., offices, retail marts, and banks.
VI. Mercantile Buildings: Employed for mercantile connotations, i.e., stores, shopping centers, and repositories.
VII. Industrial Buildings: Used for industrial pursuits, i.e., factories, energy plants, and refineries.
VIII. Storage Buildings: Utilized for storage goals, i.e., warehouses and kernel silos.
VIX. Wholesale Establishments: Operated for wholesale installations, i.e., warehouses and issuance means.
X. Mixed Land Use Buildings: Employed for a combination of purposes, i.e., residential, retail, and industrial.
XI. Hazardous Buildings: Buildings with dangerous materials, i.e., chemicals, explosives, or radioactive materials.
XII. Detached Buildings: Buildings not associated with any other buildings.
XIII. Semi-detached buildings: Buildings that convey one common wall with other facilities.
XIV. Multi-storey or High-rise Buildings: Buildings consist of more than one story.
XV. Slums: Densely inhabited places with poor housing situations.
XVI. Unsafe Buildings: Unsafe buildings to settle due to structural imperfections or other threats.
XVII. Unique Buildings: Designed for a distinctive purpose, i.e., airports, museums, and libraries.
XVIII. Multi-Level Car Parking: This consists of numerous parking levels for cars.
20+ components of the buildings.
|Foundation||The base and bottom of a building|
|Stairs||A sequence and series of steps|
|Floors||Flat or horizontal surfaces to walk on|
|Plinth||The extended base of a building|
|Roof||Exterior to insulate the building|
|Damp proofing||Controlling wetness from spiking the building|
|Doors||Beginnings in the walls|
|Walls||Vertical surfaces to hold a building|
|Lintels||Beams to advocate the weight of a wall over an entrance|
|Building finishes||Materials to shield the building’s exteriors|
|Superstructure||Part of a building beyond the ground|
|Sills||Horizontal surfaces at the base of windows and doors|
|Parapet||A low wall along the boundary of a roof or other structure|
|Slab||A flat and horizontal segment of concrete|
|Finishing work||The final phase of construction|
|Substructure||The part of a building below the ground|
|Building Services||Systems to deliver fundamental benefits to a building|
|Columns||Vertical members to uphold the building’s weight.|
|Beams||Horizontal members to defend the weight of a floor or roof|
|Dampproof course (DPC)||a layer of textile to control wetness from advancing up the walls of a building|
|Windows||Opening in a partition to permit light and air into a building|
A foundation is a thing that supports the superstructure of a building and transfers burdens to the earth. It is located below the glaze line to control damage. High-rise structures usually need more consequential support techniques, i.e., piles or caisson queues.
Types of foundations:
I. Shallow Foundations:
a. Isolated Spread Footing: Single, separated foundations beneath individual columns.
b. Wall Footing and Strip Footing Foundations: Successive footings beneath load-bearing walls or stripes under walls.
c. Combined Footing: A single foundation subsidizing numerous columns.
d. Cantilever or Strap Footing: Footing expanding above column supports.
e. Raft or Mat Foundation: A large, solid slab encircling the building area.
II. Deep Foundations:
a. Pile Foundation: Vertical columns (piles) pushed into the foundation to support burdens.
b. Pier Foundation: Vertical supports, enormous than ridges, are frequently utilized in bridges.
c. Caisson Foundation: A waterproof structure dipped into the footing for construction underwater or in smooth soil.
Stairs are a way of uniting different floors in a building with the help of a sequence of steps and intermediate landing slabs.
Types of Stairs
I. Straight Stair:
✔ A linear or straight staircase without bends, docks, or landings.
II. Dog-Legged Stair:
✔ A staircase has a half-landing and two aviation in opposite orientations.
III. Quarter Turn Stair:
✔ A staircase that twists 90 degrees after a quarter of its length.
IV. Open Newel Stair:
✔ A staircase consists of an open space about the Newel post.
V. Three-Quarter Turn Stair:
✔ A staircase that twists 270 degrees after three-quarters of its size.
VI. Bifurcated Stair:
✔ A staircase consists of two aviation separating from a typical landing.
VII. Geometrical Stair:
✔ A staircase consists of complex geometric conventions.
VIII. Circular Stair:
✔ A spherical staircase consists of steps organized in a circular or loop pattern.
Floors are the technique that divides a building into levels to generate more space. The ground floor is the lowermost floor, and the ones overhead are called upper floors, i.e., the first and second floors.
Types of Flooring:
✔ Durable and universal flooring assembled of concrete.
II. Brick Flooring:
✔ Flooring utilizing bricks delivers a rustic glimpse.
III. Mud Flooring:
✔ Traditional flooring employs natural mud.
✔ Elegant flooring manipulating shiny marble tiles.
V. Rubber Flooring:
✔ Resilient and relaxing flooring assembled of rubber.
✔ Natural stone flooring, commonly in enormous, flat components.
✔ Universal flooring is assembled of ceramic or other materials.
✔ Flooring utilizing asphalt material, typically in outdoor spaces.
IX. Terrazzo Flooring:
✔ Mixed flooring with marble or granite fragments.
X. Timber Flooring:
✔ Wooden planks are utilized for warm and definitive flooring.
XI. Wooden Flooring:
✔ Wood that delivers a natural and elegant glimpse.
XII. Linoleum Flooring:
✔ Eco-friendly flooring assembled from natural materials.
XIII. Mosaic Flooring:
✔ Creative flooring with small, colored elements organized in patterns.
✔ Sustainable flooring material gathered from cork oak trees.
XV. Glass Flooring:
✔ Translucent or gauzy flooring for aesthetic attraction.
XVI. PVC Flooring:
✔ Long-lasting and cost-effective flooring assembled of polyvinyl chloride.
XVII. Typical Floor:
✔ Typical or standard floor in a building.
✔ The broad term for artificial polymer-based flooring.
XIX. Plastic Flooring Material in Buildings:
✔ The synthetic material used for flooring.
XX. Cement Intro:
✔ Warm up to cement as a flooring material.
✔ Flooring assembled of ceramic tiles is comprehended for durability.
XXII. Floating Floor:
✔ The flooring structure method is where the materials “flow” over the subfloor.
✔ The translucent material is operated for modern and unique flooring.
✔ A plinth is a bottom or base that sustains a column or configuration. It spreads the weight and intimidation evenly across a better expansive space.
✔ A roof is the protecting components of a building from harsh weather and more. It is essential for a safe foundation.
Types of roof:
I. Sloping or Pitched Roof:
a. Lean-to-Roof: Single-sloped roof connected to a higher wall.
b. Gable Roof: A triangular-shaped roof with double pitches.
c. Hip Roof: All sides incline down to the walls.
d. Gambrel Roof: Identical to a barn canopy, with more vertical and more superficial slopes.
e. Deck Roof: Roof operated for outdoor habitation space.
f. Mansard or Club Roof: Four-sided roof with dual slopes.
II. Flat or Terraced Roof:
✔ Horizontal or almost horizontal roof with a slight slope.
III. Curved Roof:
✔ Roof with a curved configuration, frequently circular or oval.
IV. Unique Type of Roof:
a. Butterfly Roof: V-shaped roof corresponding to butterfly wings.
b. Dormer Roof: Roof with a window casting from a slantwise texture.
c. M-shaped roof: A roof is shaped like the letter M, continually in stylish architecture.
6. Damp proofing
✔ Dampproofing controls moisture from increasing via a structure. A dampproof course (DPC) is a barrier to rising dampness when water grows from the ground into a property.
Types of damp proofing:
I. Electro-Osmotic Damp Proof Course:
✔ It utilizes electrical currents to control growing wall dampness.
II. Chemical Damp Proof Course:
✔ Application of chemical resolutions to withstand wall dampness.
III. Pressure Grouting:
✔ Injection of grout to seal holes and control water infiltration.
IV. Membrane Damp Proof Course:
✔ Installation of physical obstacles, i.e., sheets to block dampness.
V. Integral Damp Proof Course:
✔ Additives blended with building materials to withstand damp penetration.
VI. Cavity Wall Damp Proof Course:
✔ Coating in a wall cavity to control moisture transmission.
✔ A door is a way to connect internal and external components of a building for available movement.
Types of Walls:
I. Load Bearing Walls:
✔ Subsidize vertical burdens in a structure.
a. Precast Concrete Wall: Simulated off-site, then inaugurated.
b. Retaining Wall: Bears back soil or water to control deterioration.
c. Masonry Wall: Constructed utilizing bricks or concrete blocks.
d. Pre-panelized Load Bearing Metal Stud Walls: Metal studs constructed off-site for load-bearing partitions.
e. Engineering Brick Wall: Assembled with elevated-strength bricks.
f. Stone Wall: Built utilizing natural or cut gravel.
II. Non-Load Bearing Wall:
✔ Holds no structural burden from overhead.
a. Hollow Concrete Block: Concrete blocks with recessed hearts.
b. Facade Bricks: Bricks are utilized for the external face of a wall.
c. Hollow Bricks: Bricks with hollow bodies for insulation.
d. Brick Walls: Walls assembled with bricks and mortar.
III. Cavity Walls:
✔ Dual walls with a hole for insulation.
IV. Shear Walls:
✔ Developed to withstand lateral forces.
V. Partition Walls:
✔ Individual internal spaces hold no powerful loads.
VI. Panel Walls:
✔ Walls assembled of prefabricated panels.
VII. Veneered Walls:
✔ Walls with an adorning surface layer.
VIII. Faced Walls:
✔ Walls with a typical finish or cladding.
✔ A lintel is a beam placed above doors and windows to support the load from the structure above. They are mainly used in masonry or brick structures.
Types of Lintels:
I. Concrete Lintels:
✔ Ordinary and sturdy, assembled of reinforced concrete.
II. Timber Lintels:
✔ Lintels formulated from wood are usually operated for aesthetic purposes.
III. Stone Lintels:
✔ Natural stone components sustain openings.
IV. Steel Lintels:
✔ Robust and long-lasting, assembled of steel for structural support.
V. Brick Lintels:
✔ Bricks are organized to assemble lintels for window or door entrances.
VI. Reinforced Brick Lintels:
✔ Hardened brick lintels with counted underpinning for support.
10. Building finishes:
Building finishes are the textiles and procedures utilized to protect the surfaces of a structure, both inside and out. It preserves the building from the elements and sweetens its impression.
Types of building finishes:
✔ A liquid layer that covers, garnishes, and determines surfaces.
✔ An adorning paper that is operated to cover walls.
✔ Ceramic or stone representatives that cover walls and floors.
IV. Wood panels:
✔ Sheets of timber that protect walls and roofs.
✔ Narrow sheets of plastic or materials that coat countertops and other surfaces.
✔ The superstructure is the portion of a building that is exceeding or above the ground. It contains the walls, roof, and floors.
Types of superstructures:
I. Load-bearing superstructure:
✔ The superstructure utilizes the walls to sustain the burden of the roof and floors.
II. Framed superstructure:
✔ The superstructure utilizes a frame of beams and columns to sustain the burden of the roof and floors.
Sills are the flat and horizontal surfaces at the base of windows and doorways.
Types of sills:
I. External sills:
✔ The sills are used outside the building to prevent water from entering.
II. Internal sills:
✔ The sills inside the building conclude the beginning and deliver a surface for the window or doorframe to relax.
✔ A parapet is a lower wall constructed along the roof’s border. The types of parapets are:
I. Solid parapets:
✔ These walls raise the roof’s maximum height.
II. Open parapets:
✔ These have entrances, such as balusters or railings.
✔ A slab is a flat and horizontal portion of concrete to create floors, roofs, and foundations. The main types of slabs:
I. Solid slabs:
✔ These are stable components of concrete that are not strengthened.
II. Reinforced slabs:
✔ These have implanted steel bars to make them more powerful and more long-lasting.
15. Finishing work
✔ Finishing work is the conclusive phase of construction, where the building exteriors are coated with paint, wallpaper, and tiles. The main types of finishing work:
I. Internal finishing work:
✔ This finishing work is accomplished to the interior of the building and contains painting, wallpapering, and tiling walls and roofs.
II. External finishing work:
✔ This work is accomplished above the building, including painting, rendering, and cladding walls.
✔ The substructure is the portion of a building considered below the ground. It contains the foundation and the footings. The main types of substructures:
I. Shallow foundation:
✔ The foundation is operated when the base is stable and the building is not too weighty.
II. Deep foundation:
✔ The foundation is operated when the base is unstable or the building is weighty.
17. Building Services
✔ Building services are the techniques that deliver necessary services to a building, i.e., plumbing, electrical, heating, and cooling. The types of building services:
✔ The service delivers water and drainage to the structure and building.
✔ The service supplies electricity to the building.
✔ The service contains heating, cooling, and ventilation of the building.
✔ Columns are the vertical components that sustain the burden of the building. The types of columns:
I. Steel columns:
✔ These are assembled of steel and are highly robust and durable.
II. Concrete columns:
✔ These columns are assembled of concrete, robust and durable.
✔ Beams are flat and horizontal components that sustain the burden of a floor or roof. The types of beams:
I. Steel beams:
✔ These are assembled of steel and are highly vigorous and durable.
II. Concrete beams:
✔ These are assembled of reliable and durable concrete.
20. Dampproof course (DPC)
✔ A dampproof course (DPC) is a coating of material utilized to control dampness from growing the walls of a building. The types of DPCs:
I. Membrane DPC:
✔ This kind of DPC is a sheet of plastic or rubber applied beneath the foundations of the building.
II. Slurry DPC:
✔ This kind of DPC is a fluid that is devoted to the walls of the building.
✔ A window is a doorway in a wall that authorizes light and air into a building. The types of windows:
I. Casement windows:
✔ Windows hinge on one side but open outwards.
✔ Windows glides up and down or side-to-side in a framing.
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