Table of Contents
Plumbing is a system that flows fluids for a long range of applications.
Plumbing utilizes pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other tools and materials to flow fluids.
1. Systems of Plumbing
There are four principal systems of plumbing as follows:
(i) Single stack system
(ii) One pipe system
(iii) Partially ventilated single stack system and
(iv) Two-pipe system
a. Single stack system
This is the simplest system, in which the waste matter from baths, sinks, et as well as foul matter from the W.C. is discharged in one single pipe, called the soil and waste pipe (S.W.P.). This pipe terminates as the vent pipe at its top, and no separate vent pipe is provided.
The single-stack system is effective only if the pipes are completely dispensed with. Gulley traps and waste pipes traps are filled with water seals of depth not less than 75 mm. The system is simple and economical since only one pipe is used.
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b. One pipe system
In this system, a separate vent pipe is provided, ed and the traps of all water closets, basins, etc. are completely ventilated. In a multi-storeyed building, the lavatory blocks of different floors are situated one above the other, so that the wastewater discharged from various units at different floors can be carried through common soil and waste pipe (S.W.P.). The system is costlier than the single-stack system.
c. Single Stack System Partially Ventilated
This is a modified form of the single stack system and one pipe system. In this system, the waste from W.C., basins, sinks, etc. is discharged into one common soil and waste pipe (S.W.P.) However, in addition, a relief vent pipe is also provided which provides ventilation to the traps of water closets. The traps of basins etc. are not directly connected to the vent pipe.
d. Two Pipe System
In this system, separate soil pipe (S.P.) and waste pipe (W.P.) are provided. The discharge from W.C. is connected to the soil pipe (S.P.) while the discharge from baths, sinks, lavatory basins, etc. is connected to the waste pipe (W.P.).
All the traps are completely ventilated by providing separate ventilating pipes four pipes are required. The discharge from the waste pipe is disconnected from the drain by means of a gully trap.
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2. Anti-siphonage Pipe
It is a pipe provided to preserve the water seal traps. It maintains proper ventilation and does not (low the water seal to get broken due to siphonic action.
In the case Of a multi-storeyed building, the sudden flush of water in the upper story results in the sucking of air from the short.
Branch of the pipe connecting the W.C. to the soil pipe of the lower story. This sucking of air causes a partial vacuum. on the downstream side of the water seal of’ the lower W.C.
The pressure at the upstream side of the water seal is more (atmospheric), which forces the water up the trap and siphons it out in the branch. This results in the breaking of the water seal.
This can be avoided by connecting the crown of the trap to the atmosphere through an anti-siphonage pipe. A ventilating pipe can therefore be used as an anti-siphonage pipe.
This was for the Systems of Plumbing.
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