System of sanitation is the hygienic means of maintaining proper health through the prevention of human contact with hazards of wastes by proper treatment and disposal of solid and liquid wastes.
Human use the resources of the earth and waste products are produced. These wastes are generated by domestic, commercial and industrial activities. If these wastes are not carefully disposed of then it results in water, soil and air pollution.
Sanitation has played a great role in maintaining a healthy life and environment for the living of human and other creatures on the earth.
System of Sanitation
This system is also known as a dry system. In this system, various types of refuses are collected, conveyed and disposed of separately by different methods. Garbages and refuses of a town are collected in dustbins placed beside the road.
The collected garbages and refuses are conveyed by trucks to the point of disposal. All the non-combustible portion of the garbage like sand, silt, clay, etc are used for filling the low-level areas while the combustible portion of the sewage like dry leaves, waste paper, broken furniture, etc are burnt.
Human excreta are collected separately in privies or conservancy latrines and are carried by human agencies.
Advantages of Conservancy System
- It is cheaper because of the low initial cost.
- Quality of sewage reaching at the treatment plant before disposal is low.
Disadvantages of Conservancy System
- Burning of garbage, dry refuse, etc cause environmental degradation and pollution.
- Decomposition of sewage causes unsanitary conditions on public health.
2. Water Carriage System
As the conservancy system produces sanitary as well as aesthetic problems. So, after several experiments; water carriage system is determined as best.
In this system, water is the main system of disposal of the waste.
Advantages of water carriage system
- More hygienic method.
- The unusual water supply is sufficient and no additional water is required in water carriage system.
- This method does not depend on manual labour at any time except when the sewer gets blocked.
Disadvantages of water carriage system
- Not suitable for the area having less water
- Maintenance cost is high.
- High initial cost.