Maintenance is the process of preserving and keeping the structure as normal as possible. similarly, Road maintenance is the process of preserving and keeping the road structure as normal as possible and practicable.
The process of maintaining and keeping roadway, shoulder, laneway, structures as much as possible in its existing condition as constructed or as subsequently improved is called maintenance of Highways OR Road Maintenance.
Road maintenance brings immediate and sometimes dramatic benefits through improved safety, comfort and low vehicle operation cost.
Neglecting maintenance may lead to the complete failure of a structure or may require re-construction which costs three or more times the cost of maintenance.
Hence, to protect and preserve road and road furniture road maintenance is important.
Different types of road maintenance
1. Routine Maintenance
Small scale maintenance work conducted regularly is called routine maintenance.
1. Sweeping of road
2.Cutting of the grasses
3. Minor reshaping of the ditches.
4. Cleaning the ad furniture
2. Recurrent Maintenance
Maintenance operation of the localized nature of a limited extent carried out at an interval several months or year is called recurrent maintenance.
1. Edges repair
2. Local Re-construction.
Maintenance operation of a large extent conducted at the interval of several years is called periodic maintenance.
1. Re-surfacing of road
2.Repairing of the railing of bridge and culverts
3. Repairing of Earth Retaining Wall
4. Repairing of Parapet wall
Maintenance operation conducted after 10 years of construction or in an emergency condition is called emergency maintenance.
It is carried out at following urgent conditions:
1. Road Washout
2. Collapse of culvert
3. Road blocked by the landslide
4. Settlement of road to a high extent.
Factor Affecting Road Maintenance:
Usually, the following factors affect the maintenance of pavements.
1. Increase in the intensity of traffic.
Since we know that there is an increase in road transport per year about 8%. Hence this is the most major factor, which influences the maintenance of roads.
2.Inadequate Thickness of Pavement.
As before talk about the adequate thickness of pavement is important. If the adequate thickness is not provided, it will result in frequent pavement failure, unevenness, and heavy patches.
1. An adequate drainage system should be provided that has a design flaw that could last for the lifetime of the project. On the Ring Road, there is no such provision because it causes the water table to rise and affect the pavement foundations.
2. Proper sloping should be kept on the road surface to remove the rainwater smoothly.
3. The material of use should be nearby of the project area so that there should be no delay in the construction period.
4. To make sure that the material reaches to the site in the time when needed and neither earlier nor later than that.
5. In the case of asphalting, the temperature at the time of the laying of material should be within limits and according to the standards.
6. The pavement should be prepared in line with maximal expected axle loading in some region and not more than that load should be permitted to pass over it.
7. Grade of bitumen is the most important thing to be noticed. Proper grading benchmark should be acquired by the climate conditions, so the selection of the proper grade of bitumen is a big problem.
8. Continuously driving on the same lane should be avoided to prevent rutting failure.
9. Proper compaction should be done to get success in the highway design.
10. If the soil does not have sufficient strength, it should be upgraded by adding some reagents. Also if required, soil can be, bring in from other places.