Monday, September 25, 2023

19 Different Drafting Tools and Materials : Function and Their Uses

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In this article, we will discuss different drafting tools and materials.


✔ It is necessary to use proper drafting materials and tools to make an excellent drawing. These materials are generally utilized by architects, drafters, engineers, painters, or other technical persons.

✔ Drawing tools improve the accuracy and final output of any drawing.

✔ From artistic drafting to drafting of structures, all require proper drafting tools for accurate output. So, we will discuss essential drafting tools in this article.




  A. Different Drafting Tools and Materials  

The list of different drafting tools  and materials is given below:



1. Drawing Paper  

Drawing paper is specially made for drawing on.

✔ From making artistic drawings to heavy structural drawings, drawing paper is vital.

✔ Not for making hand drawings only but also to print a hard copy of digital drawings; drawing paper is needed.

✔ Different types of drawings require different types of drawing papers.


Drawing Paper


 i. Selection of Drawing Paper for Work  

Selecting the best drawing paper for specific work is quite complicated. So, to make your task easier, we have made this list.


a. Bond Paper

✔ Harder & durable than ordinary papers.

✔ Mostly made up of rag pulp.

Suitable For: Letterheads, Typed reports, and Envelopes.


b. Gloss Coated Paper

✔ Coated with gloss.

✔ Highly shining in nature.

Suitable For: Flyers and Brochures


c. Matt Coated Paper

✔ It is the opposite of gloss-coated paper.

✔ Coated with matt.

✔ It isn’t shiny.

Suitable For: Reports, Flyers, and Leaflets 


d. Recycled Paper

✔ This paper is made recycling already utilized papers.

✔ Helps in reducing environmental impacts.

Suitable For: Reports, Memo paper, and Forms.


e. Silk Coated Paper

✔  Interim between gloss and matt.

✔ Smooth, silky coating is done.

✔ Paper is smooth to touch but not much shine.

Suitable For: Magazines, Books, and Catalogues


f. Uncoated Paper

✔ Absence of coat.

✔ Commonly used for official purposes.

✔ It is a mainly used and commonly available type in our daily life.

Suitable For: Forms, Letterheads, Applications writing, Files printing, and Memo paper


g. Watermarked Paper

✔ It provides a luxury and premium look as it is provided with a watermark of the company.

Suitable For: Documents, Exam Certificates, and Game Certificates.


2. Different Sizes of Drawing Paper  

Paper size Dimensions (cm)  Paper Area
Α5 14.8 x 21 cm 0.03108  m2
Α4 21 x 29.7 cm 0.0612  m2
Α3 29.7 x 42 cm 0.125 m2
Α2 42 x 59.4 cm  0.25 m2
Α1 59.4 x 84.1 cm 0.50  m2
Α0 84.1 x 118.9 cm 1 m2


✔ Commonly, A3 & A4 paper is utilized for official uses.

✔ A0 and A5 are not suitable for general works.

The dimensions in the drawing below are in centimeters.

Drawing Paper : Sizes & Selection of Drawing Paper for Work



3. Paper Weight Descriptions

Weight Feels Similar to:
35-55 gsm Most newspapers
90 gsm Mid-market magazine’s inner pages
130-250 gsm A good quality promotional poster
180-250 gsm Mid-market magazine cover
350 gsm Most reasonable quality business cards


The paper between 75 and 110 gsm is commonly utilized for official purposes.

2. Masking Tape  

✔ This tape sticks the drawing paper on the drawing board.

✔ This tape is soft and doesn’t harm the drawing paper and table if appropriately handled.


Masking Tape





3. Pencil Sharpener  

✔ A pencil Sharpener is a mechanical gadget used for sharpening pencils.

Pencil Sharpner



4. Eraser

✔ An eraser is used to clean the unwanted drawings or dirt off the drawings.

✔ A soft eraser is used to remove smudges and pencil marks, whereas a harder eraser is used for making changes and correcting errors in the drawing.




5. Drawing Pencil  

Drawing pencil is an essential tool in drawing as it is used for making drawings on paper. 

✔ For drafting, graphite pencil is commonly used.

✔ The grade of a pencil depends on the type of work.

Hard Pencils are used where extreme accuracy is required especially working on graphs, diagrams, and charts. E.g., 2H pencil, 4H pencil, 6H pencil, etc.

Medium Pencils are used for general-purpose work in drawing. E.g., HB Pencil

Soft Pencils are too soft to be used in mechanical drafting. They are beneficial for artwork of various kinds. E.g., 2B Pencil, 4B Pencil, 6B Pencil, etc.

Drawing Pencil


  a. Hardness of Pencil  

We use graphite pencils for drawing and drafting. So hardness of graphite pencil is discussed below.

Before moving to the hardness of pencil, we must know the followings:

~ B stands for Black, and it shows softness.

~ H stands for Hard, and it shows hardness.

~ HB stands for Hard Black, and it shows medium-hard.

~ F stands for Firm.

The 16 degrees of graphite pencil hardness are: 8B, 7B, 6B, 5B, 4B, 3B, 2B, B, HB, F, H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 5H, and 6H.


S.N. Pencil Hardness Used In Making
1. 3B to 8B Artistic & Pictorial drawing
2. H, F, HB, B, and 2B All Common Drawing and Writing
3. 2H to 6H Technical drawing





6. Triangular Scales  

✔ A tool generally used when reproducing a drawing in an enlarged or reduced form to some regular proportion.

✔ Its primary function is to reproduce the measurements of an object in full size, reduced size, and enlarged size.

Triangular Scales




7. Erasing Shield  

✔ This is prepared of thin metal or plastic with irregular holes.

✔ It is helpful to save the rest of the drawing when removing smudges, needless pencil lines, and other dust.

Erasing Shield




8. T-square  

✔ T-square is a drawing instrument used when making horizontal lines.

It is also used for guiding triangles when drawing vertical lines and perpendicular lines with the help of a set square.

✔ It is made of wood, plastic, or a combination.

Different Drafting Materials and Tools

a. Fixed Head T-Square

The head is fastened to the blade. It is utilized for ordinary work.


b. Movable Head/ Adjustable Head T-Square

It has no fixed blade (movable head) and is utilized for occasional drawings.


c. Detachable Head /Removable Head T-Square

The blade and head can be separated. This makes it comfortable to carry.



9. Triangles Scales

✔ It is a three-sided ruler, which contains two equal sides intersecting at a 90-degree angle and the third side at 45, 30, including 60-degree angles.

Commonly used triangles are:

a. 30 degrees X 60 degrees

b. 45 degrees X 45 degrees

Triangular Scales



Read Also: Orthographic projection.



10. Compass  

✔ A compass is a drawing instrument used to draw arcs and circles. It is utilized in the same way as a divider.

✔ It is made of two legs (i.e., a pen leg and a needlepoint leg ) being held together with a handle.


14 Different Drafting Materials and Tools: Function and Their Uses



11. Divider

✔ It is utilized when moving measurements, dividing lines, and arcs into a given number of equal parts.

✔ It can quickly move accurate measurements by adjusting the divider points.




12. Protractor  

✔ A semi-circular instrument is divided into 180 equal parts, each called a degree.

✔  It is utilized to calculate gradations of the degrees when measuring arcs, angles, and circles.



Read Also: Building Plan




13. Drafter  

✔ Drafters are used for preparing technical drawings and plans.

✔ Drafter is utilized in making technical drawings to design everything from microchips to skyscrapers.





14. Drawing Table  

✔ The drawing table is made up of wood, plastic, or glass and has smooth surfaces where drawing paper is placed and fixed with the help of tape.


Designation Length x Width (mm) Recommended for use with sheet sizes 
D0 1500 x 1000   A0
D1 1000 x 700 A1
D2 700 x 500 A2
D3 500 x 500 A3


Drawing Table


Read More: Building Plan



15. Drafting Lamps  

✔ A drafting lamp is a very beneficial product for an engineer or architect. These lamps consist of adjustable arms and use fluorescent, halogen, or LED light bulbs.

✔ With the help of drafting lamps, we can do our work at night, which helps us focus on a particular section at night.

Drafting Tools



16. Magnifying Glass  

✔ A magnifying glass is used to closely watch the small components in the drawing that are less visible to our eyes.

Magnifying Glass




17. Electric Erasers

✔ Electric erasers are handy to remove or erase the tiny lines and borders in drawing more accurately.

✔  There is less chance of making drawing paper dirty with an Electric eraser which saves a lot of time for the user.


Electric Erasers



18. Blue Print Measuring Tool  

✔ Blueprint measuring equipment is prepared for architects and engineers for their work. It simplifies takeoffs from architectural and engineering drawings because it can calculate the linear measurements of any shape.

✔  The wheel can be digital or analog, or hybrid. It can also move along maps, plans, blueprints, and other flat objects and then measure the measurements.

Blue Print Measuring Tool


19. French Curve

A French curve is a drawing instrument composed of several curves and is commonly made from wood, plastic, or metal.

✔ It is used for making perfect curves.

✔ It is used in both artistic drawings as well as in technical drawings.

french curve

✔ French curve set ( Burmester set ) commonly consists of 3 curves.

✔ Bottom curve is mainly utilized for hyperbolas.

✔ Smaller curve in the middle is used for ellipses.

✔ Large one curve is used for parabolas.


Read Also: Tools Used for Stone Dressing




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Er. Madhu Krishna Poudel
Er. Madhu Krishna Poudel
He is a founder and lead author of Dream Civil International and his civil engineering research articles has been taken as source by world's top news and educational sites like USA Today, Time, The richest, Wikipedia, etc.
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