Table of Contents
In this article, we will discuss grouting.
Grouting may be defined as the process of placing material into cavities or cracks in concrete, masonry structure, soil, rock mass to rise the structure’s load-bearing capacity is known as grouting, and the material utilized for this sim is called grout.
A mixture of cement, sand and water or chemical that helps to minimize the gaps is known as grout. It is utilized to repair concrete cracks, fill gaps in tiles, for soil stabilization, sealing joints, and gaps filling for waterproofing.
Grouting is executed for giving extra strength to the foundation of load-bearing structures.
Grouts are utilized for various use like repairing cracks, filling voids and gaps in tiles, sealing joints for waterproofing the submerged structure like tunnels, canals, etc.
2. Characteristics of Grout
Grouts are found in premixed powder form, make sure a high-quality mortar.
a. It comes as one component product only requires water and mixing, and is ready to use.
b. It contains a shrinkage compensation property.
c. There is no problem with segregation and bleeding with grout.
d. It can be poured and pumped as per the need.
e. It contains excellent flowing property.
f. Its consistency can be adjusted
g. It has suitable adhesion properties with concrete.
h. It has a high rate of strength development.
i. It gives a highly effective bearing area.
j. It is non-toxic and inflammable material.
k. It contains the non-corrosive property.
l. It provides initial expansion by gas generation.
3. Applications of Grouting
The applications of grouting are as follows:
a. It is used for filling voids, gaps, and cavities in the concrete.
b. Grouting is done for filling the voids between the rock face and lining in tunnel work.
c. It is used for fixing tendons post-tensioned in pre-stressed concrete construction.
d. It is used for repairing pavement and ground below the foundation.
e. It is used for repairing cracks in concrete and defects in masonry.
f. Also, for fixing ground anchors for concrete pile walls.
g. For grouting machine foundation, base plate, bearing, and column joints in precast construction.
4. G1 Grout
G1 grout is utilized for steel structures, small pumps, ships, towers, and all other non-vibration machinery. Still, the accurate use of the type of grout at any place should be as per the specific drawing.
It should be cementitious, nonshrinkable, and have a compressive strength equal to or more than the foundation’s concrete, but should not be less than 30 N/mm2 in 7 days and 40 N/mm2 in 28 days.
5. G2 Grout
This type of grout is utilized for prefabricated concrete structures, compressors, heavy equipment put through to vibration, and for massive structures column bearing plates.
The minimum compressive strength of grout must be 50 N/mm2 in 7 days and 60 N/mm2 in 28 days. The flexible strength of grout should be more than 9 N/mm2 in 28 days. The grout must be cementitious, non-shrinkable, and should have high compressive strength.
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6. Process of Grouting
The process for applying the grout on the surface or cavities are as follows:
a. Mixing of Grout
Take the needed amount of water in a drum, keep grout powder in it, and then mix it well. The process of mixing grouting powder in water can be executed mechanically or by utilizing an electric drill at low speed ( max 500 RPM) with water in a required ratio to neglect air-entraining. For the wished consistency and flow property, the mixing ratio can be altered.
For Flowable Grouting
The ratio of Water: Powder = 0.14 to 0.16 by weight (4.2 to 4.8 liters of water for a 30 kg bag).
For Pourable Grouting
The ratio of water: Powder = 0.12 to 0.14 by weight (3.6 l to 4.2 liters water for 30 kg bag). The low mixing time required for the mixture is 180 seconds.
b. Surface Preparation
Before application prepare the surface where grouting should be done by cleaning it through a high-pressure water jet, scrabbles, blast cleaning, etc. To make sure a saturated surface is in dry condition during the whole process, the concrete surface should be pre-soaked with water.
c. Application on the Surface
After mixing the grout well, flow it quickly into the prepared surface to be grouted. Make sure that air removed by the grout could out easily; otherwise, captured air will stop full contact grouting with the surface.
To keep a saturated surface dry condition, wet the porous surface, especially when grouting base plates. Keep a continuous and enough pressure head to keep grout pouring.
For the optimum use of the product’s expansion properties, try to utilize it as quickly as possible (within 15 minutes).
7. Types of Grout Used For Ceramic Tiles
a. Unsanded grout
It is best for wall tiles that contain grout joints less than 3.175 mm (1/8″) wide.
b. Finely sanded grout
It is helpful for floor tiles with joints having 3.175 to 9.525 mm (1/8″ to 3/8″) wide.
c. Quarry-type grout
It is the same as finely sanded grout for ceramic tiles, but the coarser grade sand is utilized. It is best for 9.525 to 12.7 mm (3/8″ to 1/2″) wide joints.
d. Epoxy grout
It is prepared with epoxy resin and hardener. Epoxy grout provides high resistance to stains and chemicals and contains an excellent bonding strength. It is a perfect choice for areas open to stains like countertops and others.
8. Advantages of Grouting
The advantages of grouting are as follows:
a. It can be executed in any type of ground condition.
b. It doesn’t emit any vibration and can be managed. So, there is no risk of structural damage.
c. The ground structure change can be noticed.
d. It is good for bounded space and low headroom use.
e. It is best for slab jacking which levels or rises the deformed foundation.
f. It can be executed adjacently to an existing wall.
g. It helps to control groundwater flow, seepage, and hazardous waste material type and its process.
9. Disadvantages of Grouting
a. It can be a little bit messy and time-consuming.
b. It may need cleanup.
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