Dead End Water Distribution System ( Tree System) : Suitability, Advantages & Disadvantages

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Dead end water distribution system is also referred to as a tree system.

This system consists of one main pipe from which a number of sub-mains bifurcate and from each sub-main several branch pipes separate out which are called laterals.

From laterals; connections are given to different houses.

This system is easy to design and is cheap and simple.


Dead End Water Distribution System


Water conveyance is only unidirectional in this system, so water can reach a specific point solely through one route, thus if any fault creep in the water system gets disturbed in that area.

This system has many dead ends which prevent the free circulation of water, thereby increasing the possibility of contamination of water.

Discharge can’t be increased in case of a fire breakout.

Dead-end mains longer than 1,000ft should be at least 6 inches in diameter.


  1. Suitability  

This type of distribution system is suitable for old cities.


  2. Advantages of Dead End Water Distribution System  

a. It is relatively cheaper.

b. Design and calculation of the dead-end system are easy.

c. Requires less number of valves; this makes it easier to determine discharges and pressures.


  3. Disadvantages of Dead End Water Distribution System  

a. The single pipeline serves the region. One problem in the pipeline may lead to a cut-off of the water supply of a large area.

b. Presence of many dead ends makes stagnation of water in pipes.

c. Discharge of water is quite low.


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