There are many types of crops which are classified into different categories based on agricultural use, seasons, life cycle, etc.
1.1. Classification of Crops
A. Agricultural classification of crops
a) Field crops: Wheat, Rice, Maize, Barley etc.
b) Plantation Crops: Tea, Coffee, Coconut etc.
c) Commercial crops: Oilseed, Cotton, Sugarcane, Groundnut etc.
d) Horticulture: Fruits and vegetables.
e) Forage crops and grass: Fodder.
f) Miscellaneous crop: Silk, Medicinal crops etc.
B. Classification of crops based on crop season
A. Rabi crops:
Rabi season starts from October and ends on 31st March: The crops which are sown in the winter season are called Rabi crops. So they are also called winter crops. Rabi crops are Wheat, Linseed, Mustard, Potatoes etc.
B. Kharif crops:
Kharif season starts from 1st April to 30th September. The crops which are sown in the summer season are called Kharif crops. They are also called summer crops. Kharif crops are Rice, Maize, Cotton, Tobacco. Ground Nut, Millet etc
C. Perennial crops:
The crops that are sown in Summer & winter seasons i.e. throughout the year, they are called perennial crops. eg, Sugarcane.
C. Classification of crops based on the life cycle (ontogeny)
There are 3 types of crops based on the life cycle.
a. Annual Crops
~ Annual crops complete their lifecycle within a year or a season.
~ They grow, bloom, produce seeds and die within a season.
~ Examples: Tomatoes, Capsicum, Cucumber, Peanuts, All sorts of grains, mustards, sunflowers, wheat, maize, eggplants, lettuce, etc
b. Biennial Crops
~ They complete their biological lifecycle in two consecutive seasons or two years.
~ At first year, vegetative growth takes place (mainly growth of stems, leaves, etc.).
~ At second year, they produce flowers and seeds. Then the plant dies.
~ Examples: Carrot, Raddish, Cabbage, Onions, Beet Root, Sugar Beet, etc.
c. Perennial Crops
~ They complete their biological lifecycle in three or more than three years.
~ These crops may be seed-bearing or non-seed bearing.
~ Examples: Apple, Pear, Peaches, Walnuts, Coconut, etc.
~ They generally occupy the land for more than 30 months.
D. Classification of crops based on climate
a. Tropical Crop: Sugarcane, Coconut
b. Sub- Tropical Crop: Rice Cotton
c. Temperate Crop: Barley, Wheat
d. Polar Crop: Pasture Grasses, All pines
E. Classification of crops based on the commercial field
a. Food Crops: Maize, Soyabean, Wheat, Barley, Millet, Groundnut, etc.
b. Fooder / Forage Crops: Stylo, Fodder Maize, Oats, Fodder Millet, etc.
c. Commercial / Industrial Crops: Tobacco, Sugarcane, Cotton, Jute, etc.
d. Food Adjuvants: Alum, Garlic, Cumin, etc.
F. Classification of crops based on a range of cultivation
a. Garden Crops:
They are generally grown in small scales in the garden. Examples: Onion, Turmeric, Garlic, etc.
b. Plantation Crops:
They are grown in a large area. These crops are perennial. Examples: Tea Plant, Coffee Plant, Rubber Plant, etc.
c. Field Crops:
They are seasonal crops like wheat, millet, barley, etc.
1.2. Some terminologies
• Arid region:
The region where irrigation is a must for agriculture is called the arid region.
• Semi-arid region:
The region where inferior crops can be grown without irrigation is called the semi-arid region.
• Crop Period:
The period from the instant of sowing of crops to the instant of harvesting is called crop period. It is also called a growing period.
Crop period = Harvesting date-Sowing date.
1.3. Total Growing Period of Crops
The total growing period (in days) is the period from sowing or transplanting to the last day of the harvest. It is principally passionate about the sort of crop and also the selection of the climate & the planting date.
As the growing amount heavily depends on native circumstances and many other factors. In general, it is often assumed that the growing amount for a definite crop is longer once the climate is cool and shorter once the climate is heating.
INDICATIVE VALUES OF THE TOTAL GROWING PERIOD
Crop Total growing Crop Total growing period (days)
Banana 300-3 65 Millet 105-140
Cabbage 120-140 Pepper 120-210
Carrot 100-150 Potato 105-145
Citrus 240-365 Radish 35-45
Cotton 180-195 Rice 90-150
Cucumber 105-130 Sorghum 170-130
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