classification of crops

6 Classification of Crops | Total Growing Period of Crops


There are many types of crops that are classified into different categories based on agricultural use, seasons, life cycle, etc.


1.1. Classification of Crops

AAgricultural classification of crops

a) Field crops: Wheat, Rice, Maize, Barley, etc.

b) Plantation Crops: Tea, Coffee, Coconut, etc.

c) Commercial crops: Oilseed, Cotton, Sugarcane, Groundnut, etc.

d) Horticulture: Fruits and vegetables.

e) Forage crops and grass: Fodder.

f) Miscellaneous crop: Silk, Medicinal crops, etc.


B. Classification of crops  based on crop season

A. Rabi crops:

Rabi season starts from October and ends on 31st March: The crops which are sown in the winter season are called Rabi crops. So they are also called winter crops. Rabi crops are Wheat, Linseed, Mustard, Potatoes, etc.


B. Kharif crops: 

Kharif season starts from 1st April to 30th September. The crops which are sown in the summer season are called Kharif crops. They are also called summer crops. Kharif crops are Rice, Maize, Cotton, Tobacco. Ground Nut, Millet, etc


C. Perennial crops:

The crops that are sown in Summer & winter seasons i.e. throughout the year are called perennial crops. eg, Sugarcane.


C. Classification of crops  based on the life cycle (ontogeny)

There are 3 types of crops based on the life cycle.

a. Annual Crops

~ Annual crops complete their lifecycle within a year or a season.

~ They grow, bloom, produce seeds, and die within a season.

~ Examples: Tomatoes, Capsicum, Cucumber, Peanuts, All sorts of grains, mustards, sunflowers, wheat, maize, eggplants, lettuce, etc

b. Biennial Crops

~ They complete their biological lifecycle in two consecutive seasons or two years.

~ In the first year, vegetative growth takes place (mainly growth of stems, leaves, etc.).

~ In the second year, they produce flowers and seeds. Then the plant dies.

~  Examples: Carrot, Raddish, Cabbage, Onions, Beet Root, Sugar Beet, etc.

c. Perennial Crops

~ They complete their biological lifecycle in three or more than three years.

~ These crops may be seed-bearing or non-seed bearing.

~ Examples: Apple, Pear, Peaches, Walnuts, Coconut, etc.

~ They generally occupy the land for more than 30 months.


D. Classification of crops based on climate

a. Tropical Crop: Sugarcane, Coconut

b. Sub- Tropical Crop: Rice Cotton

c. Temperate Crop: Barley, Wheat

d. Polar Crop: Pasture Grasses, All pines


E. Classification of crops based on the commercial field 

a. Food Crops:  Maize, Soyabean, Wheat, Barley, Millet, Groundnut, etc.

b. Fooder / Forage Crops: Stylo, Fodder Maize, Oats, Fodder Millet, etc.

c. Commercial / Industrial Crops: Tobacco, Sugarcane, Cotton,  Jute, etc.

d. Food Adjuvants: Alum, Garlic, Cumin, etc.


F. Classification of crops based on a range of cultivation

a. Garden Crops:

They are generally grown on small scales in the garden. Examples: Onion, Turmeric, Garlic, etc.

b. Plantation Crops:

They are grown in a large area. These crops are perennial. Examples: Tea Plant, Coffee Plant, Rubber Plant, etc.

c. Field Crops:  

They are seasonal crops like wheat, millet, barley, etc.


1.2. Some terminologies

• Arid region:

 The region where irrigation is a must for agriculture is called the arid region.

• Semi-arid region: 

The region where inferior crops can be grown without irrigation is called the semi-arid region.

• Crop Period:  

The period from the instant of sowing of crops to the instant of harvesting is called the crop period. It is also called a growing period.

Crop period = Harvesting date-Sowing date. 


1.3. Total Growing Period of Crops

The total growing period (in days) is the period from sowing or transplanting to the last day of the harvest. It is principally passionate about the sort of crop and also the selection of the climate & the planting date.
As the growing amount heavily depends on native circumstances and many other factors. In general, it is often assumed that the growing amount for a definite crop is longer once the climate is cool and shorter once the climate is heating.



Crop             Total growing        Crop             Total growing period (days)

                       period (days)    

Banana           300-3 65             Millet                   105-140

Cabbage        120-140              Pepper                120-210

Carrot              100-150               Potato                105-145

Citrus               240-365               Radish                 35-45

Cotton             180-195                 Rice                  90-150

Cucumber      105-130              Sorghum            170-130



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