Cement is a material with adhesive and cohesive properties which make it competent to bond mineral fragments into a compact whole. It is a very important binding material and used almost in every construction field. Some of the uses of cement are explained below.
Uses of Cement
Following are the various uses of cement:
a. It is used in cement mortar for masonry work, plastering, pointing etc.
b. It is used for making joints for pipes, drains etc.
c. It is used in concrete for laying floors, roofs and constructing lintels, beams, stairs, pillars etc.
d. It is employed for manufacturing precast pipes, piles, fencing posts etc.
e. It is used in the construction of important engineering structures such as bridges, culverts, dams, tunnels, lighthouses etc.
f. It is used in the preparation of foundations, watertight floors, footpaths etc.
g. It is mostly used for the construction of wells, water tanks, tennis courts, lamp posts, telephone cabins, roads etc.
h. It is used to build hydrographic and frost resistant structures.
i. It is used in the construction of hydrographic and frost resistant structures.
j. It is used for building chemical-proof structures.
k. It is used as a grouting material.
l. It is used for aesthetic concrete construction like surface finishing.
m. It is used in the construction of fireproof and thermal proof structures.
Uses of different types of cement
1. Portland cement:
a. Ordinary Portland cement
~ It is admirably suitable for use in general concrete constructions like the construction of high-rise buildings, roads, dams, bridges, flyovers.
~ It is used in making grouts and mortars.
b. Modified Portland cement
a. Due to lower heat of hydration, it can be employed in hot climates and for construction of heavy abutments, large piers, retaining walls etc. where sulphate content is not high.
c. Rapid hardening Portland cement
a. It is used where a rapid strength development is required e.g. when the framework is to be removed early for re-use, or where sufficient strength for further construction is wanted quickly as practicable.
Extra rapid hardening cement Uses:
It is suitable for cold weather concreting, or when a very high early strength is required but when it is inadvisable to use aluminous cement.
d. Low heat Portland cement
a. During the setting action of cement, a considerable amount of heat is produced, to reduce the amount of heat; this type of cement is used.
b. It is mainly used for mass concrete work.
e. Sulphate resisting Portland cement
a. It is used at places where sulphate action is severe.
b. It is employed for structures which are likely to be damaged by severe alkaline conditions such as canal linings, culverts, syphon’s etc.
f. Water-repellent Portland cement
a. Such type of cement is mostly used in water-tight concrete and water-tight renderings to identify moisture penetration in basements etc. and for coloured renderings and stucco.
g. Water-proof Portland cement
a. It is used for the construction of water-retaining structures like tanks, reservoirs, retaining walls, swimming pools, dams, bridges, piers etc.
2. Other varieties of cement
a. High alumina cement
a. Its field of application includes works in chemical plants and furnaces.
b. It is employed in colder regions having temperatures 18 degrees Celcius or below and during a war-time emergency.
c. It is used in underwater construction.
b. Quick setting cement
a. Due to its quick setting property, it is used in works where concrete is to be placed underwater or in running water.
c. Blast furnace slag cement
a. Such type of cement can be used in mass concrete structures (since its heat of hydration is lower than that of ordinary Portland cement). However, in cold weather, the low heat of hydration of blast-furnace slag cement coupled with a moderately low rate of strength development can be lead to frost damage. This type of cement should not be used in thin R.C.C structures.
b. This type of cement is frequently used in sea-water construction because of its fairly high sulphate resistance.
d. White Cement
a. It is used for different building construction fields like floor finish, plasterwork,
ornamental work etc.
b. It is also used as mortars for marbles and tiles.
c. Miscellaneous applications of white cement include swimming pools (where it replaces the use of gazed tiles with coloured shades usable underwater), moulding sculptures and statues, painting garden furniture etc.
d. It is also employed for ready mixed concrete and precast concrete blocks.
e. Coloured cement
a. These cements are widely used for finishing of floors, external surfaces, artificial marble, stair treads, textured panel faces, window sill slabs etc.
f. Acid resistance cement
a. It is used in the chemical industry for providing acid-resistant and heat-resistant coating.
g. Expanding cement
a. Mainly used for constructing water retaining structures.
b. It is also employed for repairing the damaged concrete surfaces.
h. Hydrophobic cement
a. When this cement is used in the preparation of concrete, the fine pores in concrete are uniformly distributed and thus the frost resistance and water resistance of such concrete are increased considerably.
i. Portland Pozzolana cement
a. It is widely used for hydraulic structures (mass concrete works) such as dams, weirs, etc.
b. It is also used in underwater construction works like sewage construction etc.
j. Supersulphate cement
a. This cement can be used in all cases where normal types of cement are used except in very hot weather.
b. It has been used for the undersides of bridges, over railways tracks and for concrete sewers, carrying industrial effluents.