components of paint

What is Paint ? | 7 Components of Paint | Defects in Painting | Types of Paint With Advantages & Disadvantages

 

  1. Introduction  

Paint can be defined as the pigmented liquid with a liquefiable nature that substrates into a thin layer and converts to a solid film upon application.

The primary objective of paint is to protect, impart color and provide texture to the surface where it is applied.

In other words, paint can be understood as the substance that is commonly used as the final finish to the surfaces of the structures for protecting or decorating the surface.

Emulsion Paint

The base, vehicle, thinner, and pigments are the main components of paint.

Paint is basically a pigmented opaque material i.e. it can hide the surface to which it is applied.

A wide variety of paints with various formulae are used all over the world.

The most common types of paint formulae available in the market are oil-based formulae and water-based formulae.

Paint is also available in a wide variety of colors.

It is basically stored and applied as a liquid but eventually dries into a solid after application.

It is a combination of pigments with appropriate thinners or oil.

It is usually applied to the surface by spraying or brushing.

It is used as a protective covering to prevent corrosion, chemical attacks, and other weathering effects.

It is also used to enhance the aesthetic appearance of the structure.

All paints are not suitable for all conditions. For different conditions, different types of paints are desirable.

 

  2. Characteristics of Good Paint  

The characteristics of good paint can be listed as follows:

a. Paint should have high coverage and durability.

b. It must be able to form an elastic, tough, and hard film upon drying.

c. The paint must have a good hiding power and must impart the required color.

d. It must not crack upon drying.

e. It must be able to resist the weathering effects as well as corrosion.

f. The paint must dry quickly.

g. The color imparted by the paint should not fade away within a short period of time.

h. It must be resistive to blistering, cracking, and moisture.

i. The brush marks should not appear after application.

j. The paint must provide a long-lasting pleasing appearance.

 

  3. Components of Paint  

There are 7 major components of paint. They are:

 

what is paint

 

  a. Base/ Body  

The base is one of the main components of paint and is also commonly referred to as the body of paint.

It can be defined as the solid substance in a fine state which forms the body of the paint.

The base makes the paint opaque, harder, and elastic in nature.

It also prevents the paint from cracking particularly shrinkage cracking.

White lead, red lead, zinc oxide, zinc white, iron oxide, titanium white, aluminum powder, lithophone, etc. are examples of the base. Some of them are explained below.

 

a. White Lead:
White Lead is used extensively for the painting works of the building and woodworks.

It is available in the market in a variety of forms commonly powder form and stiff paste form.

It is mostly used as an undercoat.

The stiff-paste form is made by mixing the white lead with linseed oil.

White lead is dense and water-proof in nature.

It can be applied easily and has excellent covering powder.

However, it is not suitable for metal works.

It must always be kept covered as it is prone to discoloration under exposure to the air.

 

b. Red Lead:
Red Lead is bright red in color.

The bright red color is imparted by the presence of the oxide of lead.

It is also available in the market in two forms i.e. powder form or the paste form.

Red lead as paint base dries quickly, is durable, and has a fresh appearance.

It is commonly used for the painting of ironworks and also as a priming coat on wooden surfaces.

It can also be used as a drier as it solidifies quickly when mixed with linseed oil.

The disadvantage of red lead is that it is poisonous in nature and must not be used when fresh.

 

c. Zinc Oxide:
Zinc Oxide is also called Zinc White.

It is basically an oxide of zinc and constitutes the base for almost all zinc paints.

It essentially consists of white powder and is also available in paste form by grinding with linseed oil.

Zinc oxide is smooth and transparent in nature.

It is highly desirable because it is non-poisonous and resistive to corrosion as well as sulfur attacks.

The limitation of zinc oxide is that it is costly, less durable, and less workable.

After hardening, it is prone to surface cracking.

 

d. Titanium White:
Titanium white is highly opaque in nature.

It consists of chemically inert pigment and is non-poisonous in nature.

Titanium white is not affected by factors such as light, heat as well as acids.

Due to its high refractive index, titanium white possesses excellent hiding power and is generally used as an undercoat in all types of exterior and interior organic coating.

 

e. Iron Oxide:
Iron oxide forms the base of all sorts of iron paints.

It is usually obtained from the haematite ore.

It is extensively used as the protective coating for rusting and as a prime coat for structural steel and iron surfaces.

 

  b. Vehicle  

The vehicle is basically composed of an oily liquid in which both the base and the pigment are soluble.

The primary objective of the vehicle is to allow the paint to spread over the surface to which it is applied.

The vehicle mostly adjusts the viscosity of the paint.

It is quite volatile in nature due to which it does not necessarily become a part of the paint.

Water is used as the vehicle in case of the water-based paints.

On the other hand, various types of solvent are used as a vehicle in case of the oil-based paints.

Some of the common examples of vehicles can be listed as follows:

a. Linseed Oil

b. Dehydrated Castor Oil

c. Bleached Oil

d. Fish Oil

e. Soya Bean Oil

f. Petroleum Distillate

g. Alcohol

h. Ketones and Esters

i. Glycol Ethers

 

Read More: Prismatic Compass

 

  c. Pigment  

The pigment is responsible for imparting the color to the paint.

The primary function of the pigment is to hide the surface to which it is applied. It also makes the surface opaque and glossy in nature.

The pigment can be commonly classified into two types namely the extender(inert) pigment and the prime pigment.

The most common types of pigment used are zinc oxide and titanium oxide.

 

Some of the common examples of pigments are:

a. In White Color Paints: White Lead, Titanium White, Lithophone are used as a pigment.

b. In Yellow Color Paints: Chrome Yellow, Zinc Chromate, Yellow Ochres are used as a pigment.

c. In Red Color Paints: Red Lead, Venetian Red, Chrome Red, Natural Red Oxides of Iron are used as a pigment.

d. In Blue Color Paints: Prussian Blue, Paris Blue, Ultramarine, Cobalt Blue are used as a pigment.

e. In Brown Color Paints: Oxides of Iron are used as a pigment.

 

  d. Thinner  

Thinner is also called a solvent.

It is added to the paints with the objective of making the application of the paints easy, uniform, and smooth.

It is also used to adjust the viscosity of the paint.

 

The main functions of the thinner can be listed as follows:

a. Increase the fluidity of paints.

b. Making the application of paint easier and smoother.

c. Facilitating the penetration of paint into the porous surfaces.

 

Some of the examples of the paint thinners are:

a. Turpentine (obtained from the distillation of gums from Pine trees)

b. Petroleum

c. Spirits

d. Coal tar and other hydrocarbons

 

  e. Extender  

The extender is also referred to as the fillers.

As the name itself implies, the filler is added to the paints to increase or extend the volume of the paint without disturbing other essential properties.

The chief characteristic of the extender is that it is chemically inert to other components of paint.

 

Some of the common examples of the extenders are as follows:

a. Gypsum

b. Chalk

c. Barite

d. Silica and Magnesium Silicate

 

  f. Dryer  

The dryer is usually added to the paint to accelerate the drying of the vehicle of the paint.

The primary function of the dryer is to increase the oxidation and hardening of the vehicle.

Some of the common examples of the dryer are the organic salts of lead, iron, zinc, manganese, calcium, etc.

 

  g. Additive  

The additive is added in a small amount to the paint.

It is added to the paints to improve the properties of paint such as opacity, color, dispersion of pigment, anti-freezing properties, corrosion-resistant properties, etc.

 

  4. Defects In Painting  

Some of the defects in painting work can be summarized as follows:

 

  i. Fading  

Fading is a common type of defect in painting work that causes the discoloration of the applied paint.

The main causes of such defects are various atmospheric factors such as rain, sunlight, moisture infiltration, etc.

Precisely, fading may be defined as the loss of one or more color pigments from the film of paint.

Over time, the film of paint starts to lose the color pigments under harsh atmospheric conditions and continuous sun exposure.

 

DEFECTS IN PAINTING

fig: Fading

 

Causes of Fading

The main causes of fading can be listed as below:

1. Sunlight, Infrared, and Ultraviolet Radiation

2. Temperature Variations

3. Application of dark color paints (darker colors tend to absorb more radiations from the sunlight)

4. Coastal and Harsh Environmental Conditions

5. Inadequate Film Thickness

6. Use of inferior quality paints

 

Repair & Prevention of Fading

Once fading of the paint coat begins, it cannot be repaired completely but for preventing further de-coloration, weathering resistant pigments may be used.

 

Some of the precautions that can be taken to prevent fading can be listed as follows:

1. Use of certified UV-resistant paints from authorized manufacturers.

2. Selection of lighter colored paints.

3. Regular maintenance and supervision.

 

  ii. Peeling and Blistering  

Blistering of paint is a defect that causes swelling of the paint film.

The actual reason behind the swelling of the film of paint is the formation of air bubbles beneath the coating of paint due to the ingress of moisture, oil, or grease matter.

If the swelling of the film of paint occurs due to grease or oil then it is known as blistering.

DEFECTS IN PAINTING

fig: Blistering

On the other hand, if the swelling of the paint film occurs due to water or moisture it is known as peeling.

Usually, the swelling is caused due to the use of excessive oil during the application of the final coat, inappropriate seasoning of timber, trapping of gases beneath the coat of paint, etc.

DEFECTS IN PAINTING

fig: Peeling


Causes of Peeling & Blistering

Some of the causes of peeling and blistering of paint can be listed as follows:

1. Excessive moisture

2. High humidity

3. Excessive layers of paint

4. Lack of surface preparation before application

5. Use of poor quality paint

6. High temperature

7. Long exposure to sunlight

8. Use of inappropriate application techniques.

 

Repair & Prevention of Peeling & Blistering

Such defects can be prevented by using porous paints such as emulsion paints instead of non-porous paints.

The coat of paint subjected to excessive peeling and blistering can be repaired as follows:

1. First of all, the working space must be cleared. All the furniture and utilities must be covered.

2. Then, the area of the paint coat where peeling has occurred must be scraped off using a wire brush or paint scraper.

3. The surface is then prepared for the application of a new coat which includes plastering of cracks if any, cleaning of the surface, etc.

4. An appropriate primer is then applied on the prepared surface.

5. The final coat of paint is then applied.

 

  iii. Running  

Running of paint is a type of defect in painting work that occurs when the surface of the paint is too smooth.

In this type of defect, due to excessive smoothness, the paint runs back leaving behind some uncovered surfaces.

 

DEFECTS IN PAINTING

fig: Running

 

Causes of Running

Some of the causes of the running of paint can be listed as follows:

1. Low viscosity

2. Excessively glossy surface

3. Application of too wet paint

4. Irregular spraying action

 

Repair and Prevention of Running

Such type of defect can be prevented by the use of appropriate spraying technique, use of smaller nozzle, etc.

The repair work includes the following steps :

 The paint is first allowed to dry completely.

 After it has dried completely, the run is removed with wet sandpaper, carbon block, or sand block.

 Then, the surface must be finely polished and compounded.

 The surface is finally treated with high-gloss polish.

 

  iv. Grinning  

In the absence of adequate thickness of the final coat of paint, the background becomes visible. Such defect is known as grinning of paint.

Precisely, grinning occurs when the paint coat is not opaque enough to cover the background i.e. due to insufficient opacity of the final coat of paint. Thus, the underlying surface becomes visible.

 

Grinning 531x380 min

fig: Grinning

 

Causes of Grinning

Some of the causes of grinning of paint can be listed as follows:

1. Inadequate thickness of the final coat

2. Insufficient volume of paint

3. Low opacity paint

4. Use of strong color in underlying coats

 

Repair and Prevention of Grinning

This defect can be prevented by ensuring the use of adequate thickness and volume of the final coat.

The repair work includes the following:

1. The grinned surface is first thoroughly cleaned.

2. Then, another paint that is compatible with the grinned surface is
selected and duly applied to the defective surface.

 

  v. Sagging  

Sagging is associated with the application of a thick layer of paint on an inclined or vertical surface.

It is the type of defect in which the layer of paint applied falls downwards i.e. sags down from the surface.

 

Sagging Defects of Paint min

fig: Sagging

 

Causes of Sagging

Some of the causes of sagging of paint can be listed as follows:

1. The excessive thickness of the coat

2. Poor workmanship

3. Lack of surface preparation

4. Inappropriate spraying technique

5. Low viscosity

 

Repair and Prevention of Sagging

Such a defect can be corrected by the following steps:

1. When the paint is still wet, it is rolled out or brushed out immediately to cover the surface evenly. If the paint has already dried, it must be removed using sandpaper and a new coat must be applied.

2. The painting must not be carried out during cold weather or humid conditions.

 

  vi. Chalking  

Chalking is the type of defect that results in the formation of powder-like substances on the surface of the paint.

The main reason behind the chalking of paint is the use of insufficient oil in the primer.

 

Remove Chalking Paint 01 0308180019 min

fig: Chalking

 

Causes of Chalking

Some of the causes of chalking can be listed as below:

1. Use of inferior quality paint

2. Long exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet radiation

3. Use of correct film thickness

4. Alternate hot/cold temperature

 

Repair and Prevention of Chalking

Once chalking occurs it cannot be undone.

To eliminate the defect, the surface must be pressure washed or scrubbed to remove the surface contaminants.

Some of the preventive measures that must be adopted to prevent chalking are as follows:

1. Use of water-based paints

2. Use of lighter shades of paint

3. Regular maintenance

 

  vii. Flaking  

The type of defect in which the paint film detaches from the surface is known as flaking of paint.

In general, flaking may be understood as the phenomenon in which the paint coat does not stick properly on the surface.

The main reason behind the flaking of paint is the lack of adequate bonding between the surface and film of paint.

 

peeling paint 1 min

fig: Flaking

 

Causes of Flaking

Some of the causes of flaking can be listed as follows:

1. Poor paint adhesion

2. Inadequate pre-cleaning before application

3. Ingress of moisture

4. Use of inferior quality paint

 

Repair and Prevention of Flaking

To prevent the flaking of paint, the surface must be first cleaned properly and rubbed with abrasive paper before the application of paint.

The flaking of paint can be corrected by following the below-mentioned steps:

1. Firstly, the flaked surface must be examined and thoroughly
cleaned.

2. The surface is rubbed using sandpaper.

3. Then, the surface is treated with a prime coat.

4. Finally, the surface coat is applied.

 

  viii. Blooming  

Blooming is the type of defect that causes the formation of dull patches on the surface.

The blooming of paint results in the appearance of a whitish patch on the outer surface of the paint.

Generally, water is collected after condensation and the water-soluble compounds migrate to the coated surface from the body of paint.

When such molecules evaporate from the surface, it results in the formation of a dull patch.

The main cause behind the blooming of paint is the poor quality of paint and improper ventilation.

 

TRB0005 min

fig: Blooming

 

Causes of Blooming

The causes of the blooming of paint can be listed as follows:

1. Use of fat thinners

2. Excessive humidity level

3. High air pressure

4. Poor workmanship

5. Use of inferior quality paint

6. Poor air movements

 

Repair and Prevention of Blooming

The preventive measures for avoiding the blooming of paint can be listed as follows:

1. The temperature must be maintained at 68 degrees F to 78 degree
F as far as possible.

2. Use of good quality paint, retarder, thinner, etc.

3. Reduction of air pressure.

 

  5. Types of Paint  

Some commonly used types of paint are:

 

  a. Emulsion Paint  

The emulsion paint is a mixture of two liquids that do not blend well with each other i.e. the mixture of two different non-blending liquids.

In the emulsion paint, 50 to 60%  volume of water is present and the remaining portion consists of the oily or solid portion in the pigment form. The oily particles have a higher density than water.

Emulsion Paint

 

Mostly, two types of emulsion are formed by oil and water which are as follows:

 

a. Oil in Water Emulsion:

In this emulsion, the oil is dispersed in water i.e. water is the dispersion medium and oil is in the dispersed phase.

 

b. Water in Oil Emulsion:

In this emulsion, water is dispersed in oil i.e. oil is in the dispersion medium and the water is in the dispersed phase.

 

  # Composition of Emulsion Paint  

This paint is composed of the following:

 

a. Base:

The base used can be titanium oxide, zinc oxide or iron oxide.

The selection of the base is mostly done based on the shade or colour of the paint.

For example: In white-coloured emulsion paint, titanium white is used as the base.

 

b. Vehicle/Binder:

Mostly Linseed oil, or alkyd resins, or acrylic resin, or epoxy resins are used as the vehicle.

 

c. Solvent/ Thinner:

Water or white spirit is commonly used as the solvent.

 

d. Inert Filler/ Extender:

Calcium carbonate powder or calcined kaolin clay is used as the extender.

 

e. Colouring Pigment:

The calcium carbonate powder is used as the colouring pigment in emulsion paint.

 

f. Additives:

Calgon is used as an additive.

 

  # Uses of Emulsion Paint  

The uses of emulsion paint can be listed as follows:

a. It is used both for the external walls and internal walls of the building as the surface coat. This is because it dries very quickly.

b. It is one of the most desired exterior paint.

c. It can be used both for new and old plastered surfaces.

d. It is suitable for painting even wooden and metallic surfaces.

 

  # Application of Emulsion Paint  

The application of emulsion paint is comparatively easy.

The emulsion paint can be applied easily using rollers and brushes.

The manufacturer’s instruction must be thoroughly read before the application of the paint.

The emulsion paint is mostly not manufactured in a ready to use form and thus a small amount of thinner must be added to it before the application. The thinner used is water.

 

  # Advantages of Emulsion Paint  

Some of the benefits offered by the emulsion paint can be listed as follows:

a. It is less toxic in comparison to other types of paint. This paint causes lesser reaction or irritation on the skin.

b. It is easy to apply and also dries quickly.

c. This type of paint is non-inflammable and thus prevents the risk of fire hazard.

d. The surface painted with emulsion paint is hard and can be easily cleaned utilizing water or mild detergent.

e. It is suitable for metal surfaces, wooden surfaces, walls, glasses and concrete.

f. It is not affected even when exposed to water.

g. It offers good resistance to humidity and thus can be used even in the kitchen and bathrooms where sufficient steam can be generated.

h. It also offers good resistance to sunlight and does not crack or fade out upon the exposure to sunlight.

i. Since it can bond well with any type of surface, it can be applied directly i.e. without any pre-treatment.

 

  # Disadvantages of Emulsion Paint  

Some of the disadvantages of emulsion paint can be listed as follows:

a. The drying rate of this paint in the high humid atmosphere is relatively low.

b. It is more expensive than oil-based paints.

 

  b. Enamel Paint  

Enamel paint can be defined as the oil-based paint that is used when a highly glossy finish is required.

It consists of white lead, zinc white, resins and other petroleum products.

It has characteristic coverage and colour retention property.

It is slow-drying paint as it dries very slowly.

enamel paint

It is hard in nature and provides a glossy and opaque finish to the surface where it is applied.

It also offers excellent durability and stain resisting properties.

It may also be water-based.

 

  # Composition of Enamel Paint    

 

1. Base:

White lead, or red lead, or zinc oxide, or iron oxide, or titanium white, or aluminium powder, or lithophone may be used as the base.

 

2. Vehicle/Binder:

Mostly Linseed oil, or alkyd resins, or acrylic resin, or epoxy resins are used as the vehicle.

 

3. Extender/Inert Filler:

Usually, the coloured particles are used as the extenders.

 

4. Solvent/Thinner:

Mostly, the varnish or white spirit is used as the solvent or thinner.

 

5. Colouring Pigments:

The fine powder of mineral colour pigments is used as the colouring pigments.

 

6. Additives:

Various drying additives or pigments such as lead, copper, cobalt, manganese, zirconium etc may be used as the additives.

 

  # Uses of Enamel Paint  

The uses of enamel paint can be listed as follows:

a. It provides an excellent glossy and opaque finish. Thus, it is used extensively for the painting of concrete wall surfaces.

b. It is also suitable for painting the doors, windows, staircases, kitchens and bathrooms.

c. It can also be used for painting the home appliances that are kept outdoors. The enamel paints offer high resistance to moisture, rot, volatile temperatures and other similar environmental conditions.

d. It can be used both on new surfaces and old surfaces.

e. It can be applied on metal surfaces, woodworks as well as aluminium surfaces.

 

  # Applications of Enamel Paint  

The application of this paint is comparatively easy.

It can be applied easily using rollers and brushes.

The manufacturer’s instruction must be thoroughly read before the application of the paint.

It is mostly not manufactured in a ready to use form and thus a small amount of thinner must be added to it prior to the application.

 

a. Surface Preparation

The surface is prepared using a wire brush or sandpapers. The old coat of paint should be removed finely by scrubbing with sandpapers or wire brushes. The surface should be free from non-uniformity.


b. Cleaning of the Surface

The scrubbed surface should be cleaned properly using a cloth or other cleaning agents.

 

c. Preparation of Enamel

Paint is prepared according to the manufacturer’s manual by adding a suitable amount of thinner.

 

d. Application of Enamel

After the preparation; enamel should be applied to the desired surface.  Application of paint should be done from top to bottom.

 

  # Features of Enamel Paint  

a. On the basis of the shade of enamel paint, the range of volatile organic compounds (VOC) may range from 400 to 500gm/l or no volatile compounds at all.

b. The washability or wipe ability property of the enamel paint depends upon the surface sheen and the specifications of the shade.

c. Enamel paint is available in 500ml, 1ltr, 4ltr, 10 ltr, 20ltr packs.

d. The coverage offered by one litre of the enamel paint varies from 70 to 80 sq. ft area for two coats of the paint.

e. The coverage for a single coat is 140 – 160 per litre.

 

 

  c. Distemper Paint  

Distemper paint is basically water-based paint that consists of a mixture of water, chalk, and pigments. It is used as the early form of whitewash but in actual it is better than a regular whitewash.

In the distemper paint, mostly the raisins and animal glue are used as the binding materials.

Distemper Paint

The distemper paint provides a smooth finish to the surfaces. It is also commonly referred to as cement paint. This is because the distemper paint can be applied directly on the plastered walls without the use of any prime coat.

The distemper paint is available in both the powder form and the paste form in the market. It is comparatively cheaper and can last as long as five years.

 

  # Composition of Distemper Paint  

The composition of the distemper paints includes the following:

 

i. Base/Body:

Chalk or lime is used for the base of distemper paint.

 

ii. Vehicle/Binder:

Various types of resins such as acrylic resins, alkyl resins, and epoxy resins are used as vehicles in the distemper paint.

 

iii. Inert Filler/ Extender:

Various coloring pigments are used as the extenders in the distemper paint.

Usually, the coloring pigments used are larger in size than the ordinary secondary fine particles.

 

iv. Pigment:

Mostly, the powdered mineral colors are used as the pigment in the distemper paints.

 

v. Thinner/Solvent:

In the distemper paint, the solvent used is water.

 

vi. Additive:

Mostly, the alkali resistance substances are used as additives in the distemper paint.

 

  # Features of Distemper Paint  

i. It has a distinct property by the virtue of which it allows the moisture to escape from the surface to which it is applied.

ii. It is easy to apply and can be applied directly on the plastered surface.

iii. A small amount of thinner must be added to the distemper paint during its application as this type of paint is not manufactured in ready-to-use form. The thinner mostly used for this purpose is water.

iv. It can easily be cleaned by using a mild solution of detergent.

v. It is not flexible in nature.

vi. The life span of the distemper paint can range from three years to five years.

vii. It is not water-resistant but provides a matte smooth finish.

viii. It has low VOC content.

ix. It provides a coverage of approximately 4.5 to 5 sq. mt./ltr for about two coats. However, the coverage depends upon the methods and condition of application, surface roughness, and porosity.

x. It is available in a wide range of colors in packs of 1kg, 2kg, 5kg, 10kg, and 20 kg packs.

 

  # Advantages  of Distemper Paint  

Some of the advantages offered by the distemper paint can be listed as follows:

i. It gives an aesthetically pleasing matt finish to the surfaces.

ii. It is economical and easily available in the market.

iii. It can be used for both the interior and exterior walls.

 

  # Disadvantages of Distemper Paint  

The limitations of distemper paint can be listed as follows:

i. It can be easily scraped off.

ii. It is not suitable for high traffic areas.

iii. It is not water-resistant.

iv. If thinners are not added to the distemper paint before use, then various defects such as brush mark defects, sagging defects, etc may occur.

 

  # Application of Distemper Paint  

The application procedure of the distemper paint includes the following steps:

 

A. Preparation of the Surface:

The first step includes the preparation of the surface. The surface may be a new one or an old surface. The preparation for the two different surfaces can be listed as follows:

i. Preparation of New Surface:

At first, the plastered surface must be allowed to cure completely.

Usually, the curing period must be 28 days.

After the surface has cured completely, all the dust particles, dirt, grease, mortar dropping, etc that may be present in the surface must be cleaned utilizing a wire brush or putty knife.

Then, the surface must be cleaned with a dry cloth.

ii. Preparation of Old Surface:

When the distemper paint is to be applied on an existing surface, the surface must be made free from all the dust particles, grease, dirt, mortar droppings, etc utilizing a putty knife or wire brush.

Then, the cleaned surface must be rubbed thoroughly with sandpaper and the entire surface is washed and allowed to dry fully.

The holes and the cracks are then filled with putty and left for hardening.

Finally, the surface is again rubbed with sandpaper to obtain a smooth surface and wiped off with a dry cloth.

 

B. Application of Wall Putty:

Then, a coat of primer is applied on the cleaned surface which is allowed to dry overnight.

After it has dried completely, a coat of putty must be applied.

It must be taken care that the first coat of the putty must be applied in a bottom to top manner i.e. vertical manner.

It must be done by using a putty blade, spatula, or trowel.

Then, it is allowed to dry for a period of about 6 to 8 hours.

After complete drying of the putty, the surface must be rubbed with sandpaper to obtain a smooth surface and remove the unevenness.

Then, another coat of putty may be applied and it must be allowed to dry completely for 8 to 12 hours.

However, the drying period may be varied as per the temperature variations, humidity, thickness, etc. After complete drying of the second coat, the surface must be rubbed very gently to remove unevenness using sandpaper.

The minimum thickness of each coat must be at least 1.5mm.

 

C. Application of Primer Coat:

After the application and drying of the putty, the primer coat is applied.

This is done to ensure that the surface bonds well with the distemper paint. The prime coat acts as a foundation for the paint. The primer coat can be applied employing a brush or roller.

After the drying of the first coat, the second coat is applied and allowed to dry for 8 to 12 hours.

 

D. Application of Distemper Paint:

Firstly, the paint is diluted according to the specified dilution ratio by the manufacturer.

Then, the first coat of the distemper paint is applied utilizing a brush or roller and allowed to dry for a period of about 12 to 16 hours.

Then, the second coat of the distemper paint is applied and allowed to dry overnight.

 

  d. Aluminium Paint  

The aluminium paint is mostly used as a coating material essentially comprising of a mixture of oil varnish and pigment of aluminium in the form of thin flakes.

In a simple sense, the aluminium paint consists of a mixture of finely powdered aluminium.

The composition thus allows the paint film to reflect the radiation of the sun and to retain the heat in hot water tanks, pipes and furnaces.

The hardening of the aluminium paint layer is achieved through the evaporation of the oil.

Aluminium Paint

The aluminium flakes present in the paint provides a shiny and metallic finish upon application of the paint.

The major application of such type of painting includes the painting of woodworks, metallic surfaces, etc.

 

  # Composition of Aluminum Paint  

The composition of aluminium paint consists of the following constituents:

 

a. Base:

The base is one of the main components of paint and is also commonly referred to as the body of paint.

The base that is mostly used for aluminium paint is Titanium dioxide. It prevents the paint from cracking particularly shrinkage cracking.

 

b. Vehicle:

The vehicle is the constituent of paint that is basically composed of an oily liquid in which both the base and the pigment are soluble. The primary objective of the vehicle is to allow the paint to spread over the surface to which it is applied.

The vehicle that is used for aluminium paint is oil varnish. It is quite volatile in nature due to which it does not necessarily become a part of the paint.

 

c. Pigment:

The pigment is responsible for imparting the colour to the paint.

In other words, the pigment is the colouring material that is added to other constituents of the paint to impart the desired colour to the paint.

The primary function of the pigment is to hide the surface to which it is applied.

The pigments in the aluminium paint comprise fine mineral powders.

It also makes the surface opaque and glossy in nature.

 

d. Thinner/ Solvent:

Thinner is added to the paint with the objective of making the application of the paints easy, uniform and smooth. It is also used to adjust the viscosity of the paint.

Mostly, the mineral spirit is used as the thinner in aluminium paint.

 

e. Additives:

Additives may also be added to the paint to improve the properties of paint such as opacity, colour, dispersion of pigment, anti-freezing properties, corrosion-resistant properties etc.

Mostly driers are used as additives in aluminium paints.

 

  # Features of Aluminum Paint  

Some of the features of aluminium paint can be listed as follows:

a. It has good protective properties namely heat resistance, thermal insulation and corrosion resistance.

b. It is durable and long-lasting in nature.

c. It imparts a silvery, metallic and shiny finish to the surfaces. This paint is usually manufactured in 1 litre, 4 litres, 5 litres and 20-litre packs.

 

  # Application of Aluminum Paint  

The application of aluminium paint is relatively easy.

It can be applied easily by means of rollers, brushes, spray etc.

Upon application, the aluminium paint dries quickly.

Aluminium paint can be used for painting the masonry surfaces, metal surfaces, telegraphic towers, storage tanks, hot water pipes as well as wooden surfaces.

The aluminium paint must be applied in well-ventilated conditions and care must be taken so that there is no skin contact.

In case of accidental skin contact, the affected area must be cleaned immediately with soap, water or cleanser.

 

  # Advantages of Aluminum Paint  

Some of the advantages offered by the aluminium paint are as follows:

a. It is water-proof, corrosion-resistant and weathering resistant in nature.

b. It is visible even in dark.

c. Such paint imparts an excellent silvery finish to the surfaces. Hence, can be used for painting both metallic surfaces and wooden surfaces.

 

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