Onsite construction can be understood as the traditional construction method where all the work is done sequentially onsite. This involves two major phases i.e. the design & analysis phase followed by the execution at the site phase.
The first phase of the on-site construction includes analysis and design. The analysis and design of the structure to be constructed is done after the site investigation based on the type of structure demanded by the client. It is the crucial phase of the on-site construction as the outcome or the end product of the project depends upon the analysis and design of the structure. Any minor variation and defect in the design may lead to huge disaster and loss of life and property hence it must be done by the most experienced personnel.
Once the design and analysis of the structure are completed, its execution is carried out at the site i.e. the construction at the site is commenced. The construction process involves the erection of the structure in the actual location. The construction process may be different as per the purpose and the requirement of the structure. Every construction work involves a huge amount of investments in terms of both monetary and non-monetary values. It requires an extensive amount of money, human resources, equipment and various types of materials. On-site construction is also commonly referred to as the traditional method of construction.
Advantages of Onsite Construction
Some of the advantages offered by the on-site construction can be listed as follows:
1. Onsite construction offers greater flexibility in terms of changes:
In the case of the on-site construction, the changes can be made even after construction begins. Although it is better to avoid changes in design and plans, the option still exists in the traditional on-site construction. As per the requirement at the site, changes in the design and plans can be made.
2. Numerous customization options are provided by the on-site construction:
In the case of the on-site construction, the customization of the design details is limitless. The on-site construction offers unlimited options in building design and customized details.
3. On-site construction prevents the difficulties and hassles of moving large modules into tight spaces like in the case of offsite construction. Due to this reason, on-site construction is a highly desirable method of construction in the urban areas and congested areas.
4. On-site construction offers greater flexibility on terms of renovation of the structure or any addition to the existing structure.
Disadvantages of Onsite Construction
Some of the limitations of the onsite construction can be listed as follows:
1. The speed of the progress of the on-site construction is greatly affected by the weather conditions. Since the on-site construction involves step by step construction at the site, bad weather conditions may obstruct some portions of the construction thereby causing an overall delay in the completion of the construction.
2. Safety at the site is at higher risk in case of the traditional on-site construction method. It is difficult to maintain site safety measures.
Major Aspects of Onsite Construction
Some of the important aspects of on-site construction have been briefly explained below:
1. Site Surveying
Site surveying involves the inspection of the area where the construction work is proposed to obtain the information for the designing of the structure or an estimate of the initial tasks to be carried out for the commencement of the actual construction. It is done to determine the appropriate or the precise location, access to the site, most suitable orientation of the structure, identification of the potential hazards etc.
During the site surveying, the Engineer layouts the centerlines and the sides of the work that has been proposed and identifies the reference points and the benchmarks to conduct the laying out process as per the design and the drawings. Likewise, the centre profiles are fixed for the centerlines of the walls in the construction site. The benchmarks are also duly established for carrying out the levels of the structure to determine the levels of other structures and facilities. These points must be duly maintained throughout construction until the completion of the construction.
2. Site Preparation
Site preparation includes all the preliminary works that are carried out for starting the actual construction work. It is an intensive process of grading, landscaping and building the roads followed by the siding of an area of ground where anything previously located has been cleared out to ensure that the construction site is free of any obstruction.
3. Execution of Works
Initially, during the execution of the works of the construction, the Engineer has to layout the drafted design and drawings on the ground. The site engineer also mobilizes the necessary human resources, equipment, machinery and stack the necessary materials. The office must also be set up to execute all of them. The allocation of the spaces, services and other utilities must also be provided to the people involves in the construction of the structure. Necessary arrangements for maintaining the site safety must also be ensured. Temporary services such as electricity, site office, telecommunications, access road, drinking water, sanitary system, emergency units etc must be provided.
During the setting up of the temporary office, the engineer must ensure that the functional ability is maintained around the site office so that no obstruction is posed during the progress of the work and no delay is caused in the completion of the work. The storage space must be selected such that it is not affected by the elements of theft and vandalism. The necessary arrangement for the disposal of the construction waste generated must be made such that it does not adversely affect the environment.
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