11 Factors Affecting Water Demand

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Water demand is the amount of water required to fulfill the demand of the consumers. 7 factors affecting water demand are discussed below.

Water demand mainly depends on the size of the city, quality of water, metering system, pressure in the pipeline, etc.


Water Demand:

a. By public tap / No private connection – 45 lpcd( liters per capita per day)

b. For partially plumbed house  – 65 lpcd(liters per capita per day)

c. For fully plumbed houses – 110  lpcd(liters per capita per day)

In developed countries like the USA, UK, Australia, etc; houses are fully plumbed and about 300 liters per capita per day is usually taken.

d. Educational Institution
Day School – 10 lpcd(liters per capita per day)
Hostels – 65 lpcd( liters per capita per day)

e. Hospital         
With Bed –    500 liters per bed per day
Without Bed- 2500 liters per day

f. Hotel
With Bed – 200 liters per bed per day
Without Bed – 500-1500 liters per day

g. Restaurants / Tea Stalls
500 – 1000 liter/day

h. Offices
500 – 1000 liter/office/day


Livestock demand must be more than 20% of the designed domestic demand. Normally 20-25% of total demand is taken as industry demand. Normally 5% to 10 % of total demand is taken as municipal demand for public places. 1 % of total demand is considered for fire demand.


Factors Affecting Water Demand



  A. 11 Factors Affecting Water Demand  

There are various factors affecting water demand but the major factors that play a vital role are listed. The factors affecting water demand are as follows:


a. Size of town or city

Water demand increases with an increase in the size of the town or city.

An extra amount of water is required for street cleaning, gardening, flushing, etc. This increases the water demand.


b. Living Standard

The consumption of rate of water directly depends upon the economic status of the consumer.

Upper-class(Rich) consumers use more water than lower-class ( Poor) consumers.


c. Climatic Condition

Water demand is more in hot weather than in cold.

During hot weather; the loss of water from the human body is more in the form of sweat which makes people more thirsty and requires more water for balancing the body. So water consumption increases causing an increase in water demand.


d. Industrial And Commercial Activities

Industrial and commercial activities increase the rate of water demand.


e. Quality of Water

As the quality of water increases, the rate of consumption and use of water by the consumer also increases.

Simply, good quality water leads to an increase in demand for water. If the quality of water is bad then it leads to a decrease in water demand of water.


f. System of Water Supply

Water may be supplied intermittently (i.e. for a limited time during certain fixed hours of the day) or continuously for all 24 hours of the day.

The rate of water demand is low in the intermittent system of water supply.


g.  Metering System

The rate of water demand is more in the non-metered system than in the metered system.

In the metered system, the bill for the water increases with an increase in water use. This limits the demand for water from increasing. People will use less water so that the cost of the water they need to pay is less.


h. System of Sanitation

The presence of the sewerage system increases the rate of water demand.

The residents of the town or city will also be required more water for sanitary units such as closets, drainage, etc.


i. Cost of Water

When the cost of water increases, demand decreases, and vice versa.


j. Age of Community

Water demand is high in newly constructed cities.

More water is required for the construction of infrastructures, plantations, etc.


k. Pressure In Pipeline

The demand for water increases with an increase in pressure in the pipeline.



Read More:  Water Distribution System 



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