The average per capita demand is the quantity of water obtained by dividing the quantity of water supplied during the years by the number of days in the years and the number of the person served.i.e.( Per capita demand = Q/(P*365); where Q is the quantity of water supply and P is the population of the town). There are many factors affecting water demand. Some of them are:
Factors affecting water demand
a. Size of town or city
Water demand is more with the increase in the size of town or city. More water is required for streets cleaning, gardening, flushing, etc which increases the demand for water.
b. Living Standard
The consumption of rate of water directly depends upon the economic status of the consumer. Upper-class(Rich) consumer use more water than the lower class( Poor) consumer.
c. Climatic Condition
The requirement of water is more at places having a hot and dry climate than at places having a cold and humid climate. During hot weather; loss of water from the human body is more in the form like sweat which makes peoples more thirsty and requires more water for balancing the body. So water consumption by the consumer increases causing an increase in water demand.
d. Industrial And Commercial Activities
Presence of industries and commercial commercially establishments increases the rate of demand for water.
e. Quality Of Water
As the quality of water increases, the rate of consumption and use of water by the consumer also increases.
Simply, good quality water leads to an increase in demand for water.
f. System Of Water Supply
Water may be supply intermittently (i.e. for a limited time during certain fixed hours of the day) or continuously for all the 24 hours of the day. Rate of demand is less in the intermittent system of water supply.
g. Metering System
Rate of demand for water is more in non metered system than in the metered system. In the metered system, the bill of the water increases with an increase in water use. This limits the demand for water from increasing.
h. System Of Sanitation
The presence of the sewerage system increases the rate of demand for water. The residents of the town or city will also be required more water for sanitary units such as closets, drainage, etc.
i. Cost Of Water
The cost of water directly affects the water demand. If the cost of the water is more; people use less quantity of water and vice-versa.
j. Age Of Community
Water demand is high in newly constructed cities. More water is required for the construction of infrastructures, plantation, etc.
k. Pressure In Pipeline
The consumption or demand for water increases with an increase in pressure in the water pipeline.
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