Classification of Crops
There are many types of crops. They are classified into agricultural and seasonal. Classification of crops is given by:
A. Agricultural classification of Crops
a) Field crops: Wheat, Rice, Maize, Barley etc.
b) Plantation Crops: Tea, Coffee, Coconut etc.
c) Commercial crops: Oilseed, Cotton, Sugarcane, Groundnut etc.
d) Horticulture: Fruits and vegetables.
e) Forage crops and grass: Fodder.
f) Miscellaneous crop: Silk, Medicinal crops etc.
B. Classification of crops based on crop season
A. Rabi crops:
Rabi season starts from October and ends on 31st March: The crops which are sown in the winter season are called Rabi crops. So they are also called winter crops. Rabi crops are Wheat, Bar1evGran, Linseed, Mustard, Potatoes etc.
B. Kharif crops:
Kharif season starts from ist April to 30th September. The crops which are sown in summer season i.e. 1st April to 30th September are called Kharif crops. They are also called summer crops. Kharif crops are Rice, Maize, Cotton, Tobacco. Ground Nut, Millet etc
C. Perennial crops:
The crops that are sown in Summer & winter seasons, they are called perennial crops. eg, Sugarcane.
• Arid region:
The region where irrigation is must for agriculture is called arid region.
• Semi-arid region:
The region where inferior crops can be grown without irrigation is called semi-arid region.
• Crop Period:
The time period from the instant of sowing of crops to the instant of harvesting is called crop period. It is also called a growing period.
Crop period = Harvesting date-Sowing date.
Determination of the Total Growing Period
The total growing period (in days) is the period from sowing or transplanting to the last day of the harvest. It is principally passionate about the sort of crop and also the selection of the climate & the planting date.
As the growing amount heavily depends on native circumstances and many other factors. In general, it is often assumed that the growing amount for a definite crop is longer once the climate is cool and shorter once the climate is heating.
INDICATIVE VALUES OF THE TOTAL GROWING PERIOD
Crop Total growing Crop Total growing period (days)
Banana 300-3 65 Millet 105-140
Cabbage 120-140 Pepper 120-210
Carrot 100-150 Potato 105-145
Citrus 240-365 Radish 35-45
Cotton 180-195 Rice 90-150
Cucumber 105-130 Sorghum 170-130
Determination of the Growth Stages:
Once the entire growing amount is thought, the period (in days) of the varied growth stages needs to be determined. the entire growing amount is split into four growth stages.
1. The initial stage:
This is the period from sowing or transplanting until the crop covers about 10% of the ground.
2. The crop development stage:
This period starts at the end of the initial stage and lasts until the full ground cover has been reached (ground cover 70-80%); it does not necessarily mean that the crop is at its maximum height.
3. The midseason stage:
This period starts at the tip of the crop development stage and lasts until maturity; it includes flowering and grain-setting.
4. The late-season stage:
This period starts at the end of the midseason stage and lasts until the last day of the harvest; it includes ripening.