38 Types of Wood: Hard Wood, Softwood and Semi- Hard Wood

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In this article, we will discuss 38 types of wood with color, source, density, and uses. 

 

Woods are products made from trees. There are more than 60,000 types of trees in this world that have the ability to provide different qualities of wood.

Nowadays, wood is mostly used for decoration as compared to construction.

Wood has been replaced by steel and other materials in the field of construction.

 

 


 

 

  1. Types of Wood  

 

Types of wood

 

 


 

 

1. Akasa Wood  

✔ Akasa wood is a type of heartwood and sapwood. It is straight-grained with grey-brown color.

✔ Akasa has been an extremely durable wood. Its density and hardness make it the perfect material for heavy use such as dining tables and dining benches in interior joinery, light structural work, flooring, utility furniture, and veneer for plywood, and turnery.

✔  Akasa wood is beneficial as interior wood. When properly cared these woods last long for decades.

 

Color:  Deep brown

Source: Australian-Native Trees

Common Use: Furniture, floors, cabinets, etc.

Density: 700kg/m³ at 12-15% moisture content

 

types of wood

 


 

 

2. Ash Wood  

✔ Ashwood is one type of light wood and it provides a distinctive luster when smoothed. Its structure is almost open grain and is reasonably hard-wearing. This wood can be stained to almost any color.

Color: Beige or light brown

Source: White Ash Tree

Common Uses:  Furniture, floors, cabinets, etc.

Density: 1320 on the Janka scale

 

Ash Wood

 

3. Balsa Wood

Balsa wood is the lightest and softest but is kept in a division of hardwood timber. It is a large, fast-growing tree native to the Americas. It is the sole member of the genus Ochroma. It is used for heat, sound, and vibration insulation.

Color: Pale reddish-brown

Source: Balsa tree

Common Uses: Buoys, rafts, surfboards, model airplanes, musical instruments, etc.

Density: 120-160kgm3

 

Balsa wood

 

4. Bamboo Wood

In the field of construction, bamboo is usually used because it is cheap, strong, and fastly growing than other types of wood. As a result, it makes construction cheap.

Bamboo is a giant woody fast-growing plant having a hollow jointed stem with high compressive and tensile strength. 

Bamboo has very strong fiber with compressive strength twice that of concrete and tensile strength near to steel. It can be curved without breaking due to the strong and flexible fiber present in it.

Because of these advantageous physical and strength characteristics, bamboo is suitable material for application in different types of structures and constructions.

 

Color: Rich golden

Source: Bamboo tree

Common Uses: Scaffolding, Roofing, Flooring, etc.

Density: 1160 kg/m3 with a moisture content of 7%

 

Bamboo wood

 

 

5. Beech Wood

Beechwood is very essential and majorly utilized hardwood in Europe. Its hardness, wear-resistance, strength, and excellent bending capabilities are properties for make it more popular than other types of hardwood.

Beechwood has been kept at high temperatures to get a unique red color.

Color: Reddish-brown

Source: Deciduous trees

Common Uses: Furniture, Cabinetry, Cooking utensils, etc.

Density: (700-900) kg/m3

 

Beech Wood

 

 

6. Brazilian Mahogany Wood

Brazilian mahogany is denser than that of many African mahoganies. It can be utilized for preparing boats and different construction work use.

Color: Reddish Brown / Pale Pink

Source: Swietenia mahagoni trees

Common Uses: Boats, furniture, Musical instrument, etc.

Density: 12% moisture content ranging from 472 kg/m3 (< 40 years old) to 549 kg/m3 (> 40 years old).

 

Brazilian Mahogany Wood

 

7. Cedar Wood

Cedar Woods is used for preparing quality home furniture. It provides a great appearance, cedar is aromatic and natural insect-repelling wood.

Because of its durability quality, it is utilized for higher weather and external application. Its many unique features make it different from other wood.

The cedar is not a wood of a specific species. Rather cedar contains many species of wood. More than 15 cedar species are found in the cedar species.

They are very near to each other and they are unique in features of color, hardness, and rot resistance. They are utilized on the basis of their properties.

Its dark color, lightweight, and soft texture appear it beautiful and more demanding. It is utilized for fencing, decking, siding, trim, and many other applications.

Due to its aromatic properties, It is also utilized for clothing storage and oil. It is popular all over the world.

 

Color: Pinkish-red color

Source: Coniferous Trees

Common Uses: Fencing, decking, siding, trim, etc.

Density: 380 kg/m3

 

Cedar Wood

 

8. Celtis Wood

Celtis wood is a genus of nearly 60–70 species of deciduous trees, majorly known as hackberries or nettle trees,  straight-grained but few times interlocked wood.

It is obtained with yellowish-grey heartwood and sapwood and a fine texture with a lustrous look. It is mainly used for interior joinery and trims.

Color: Pale brown to Pale yellow-brown

Source: Deciduous trees
Common Uses: Cabinetry, decking, flooring, trim, etc.

Density: 600–785 kg/m³ at 12% moisture content.

 

Celtis Wood

 

9. Conifer Wood

Conifer wood is obtained from coniferous or cone-bearing trees and is known as conifer wood. These trees are evergreen, the trees have needle-like leaves and make softwood timber.

Conifer wood is comparatively homogeneous in structure and has primarily tracheids, uniseriate xylem rays, and, in some genera, also axial parenchyma and epithelial cells around resin canals.

Color: Vibrant Yellow or Gold

Source: Coniferous trees

Common Uses: Boxes, crates, papers, etc.

Density: 480 kg/m³

 

Conifer Wood

 

10. Cherry Wood

Cherry wood has a color reddish–brown and it comes up with straight-grained wood that may hold pith flecks and tiny gum pockets that make random patterning.

Cherry wood is the best wood for carving because it is soft sufficient to be carved effortlessly but is also hard sufficient to hold its shape. Cherry wood also has an attractive, rich color that makes it a popular selection for the use of furniture, carvings, and other decorative items.

Color: Light pink to rich reddish-brown

Source: Cherry Tree

Common Uses

Types of Wood: Carving, furniture, etc.

Density: 630 kg/m³

 

Cherry Wood

 

 

11. Dahoma Wood

Dahoma wood has coarse interlocked grain, yellowish-brown streaky heartwood, and pale sapwood.

It is hard timber majorly for exterior utilize, such as exterior structural timbers, mining timbers, marine work, sleepers, outdoor furniture, etc.

Color: Whitish to Greyish-red

Source: Tall deciduous tree

Common Uses: sawing, furniture, etc.

Density: 0.73 g/cm3

 

Dahoma Wood

 

 

12. Danta Wood

The sapwood is light brown with a pinkish tinge and is sharply derived from the heartwood, which is reddish-brown and has a lustrous surface. It’s a hard and strong wearing surface. It is majorly utilized for high-quality joinery, cabinetwork, benchtops, boat components, and decking.

Color: Light Brown

Source: Danta Tree

Common Uses: boat, benchtops, cabinetwork, etc.

Density: 750 kg/m³ when dried.

 

Danta Wood

 

13. Douglas fir Wood

Douglas-fir is the best quality wood for the preparation of sashes, doors, and windows. It has a light reddish-brown color with softwood, utilized to make a large variety of products having general millwork, flooring, furniture, construction, interior, and exterior joinery, and plywood.

Color: Light Reddish Brown

Source: Pine Tree species

Common Uses: Plywood, flooring, cabinetwork, etc.

Density: 510 kg/m³ 

 

Douglas fir Wood

 

14. European Beech Wood

European beech or common beech is a deciduous tree similar to the beech family Fagaceae. It is grown in Europe and is a white to pale brown color hardwood. It is utilized for furniture, interior joinery, and flooring, and can also be used for plywood.

Color: Pale cream

Source: European BeechTree

Common Uses: Plywood, flooring, furniture, etc.

Density:752 kg/m3

 

European Beech

 

15. Elm Wood

Elm is an attractive wood with heartwood colors that varies from light to medium reddish-brown and paler sapwood that is off-white in color.

Elmwood has an important growth ring pattern and interlocking wood grain with a course.

It is available in various colors and tones from cream to dark brown and its grain is similarly diverse, varying from straight to wavy.

The elmwood includes knots and burrs also it is very durable.

Color: White or grayish-white.

Source: Ulmaceae Tree

Common Uses: Constructing boats and farm buildings.

Density: 560 kg/m3

 

Elm Wood

 

16. Greenheart Wood

The Greenheart is grown and available in Guyana. It has color-dense yellow or olive green to brown hardwood utilized for large construction such as bridges, marine, and freshwater construction. Greenheart is considered very durable and is also withstands many insect attacks. It’s also considered to be one of the best-suited woods for furniture.

Color: Pale olive green

Source: Laurel tree

Common Uses: Pilings for wharves and bridges and in ships.

Density: More than 960 kg/m3

 

Greenheart Wood

 

17. Iroko Wood

Iroko wood trees are grown in West Africa. It contains the color yellow-brown hardwood with a small grain that is irregular and interlocked. Iroko wood is generally used for interior and exterior joinery and for construction work.

A cheaper option to teak. It is also called African, or Nigerian, teak, but the iroko is not similar to the teak family. It is very durable.

Color: Yellow-brown

Source: Iroko Tree

Common Uses: Outdoor gates and infrastructure

Density: 660 kg/m3

 

Iroko Wood

 

18. Khaya Wood

Khaya wood is a beautiful hardwood species from equatorial West Africa. It is similar in appearance and properties to Honduras Mahogany. It’s lighter in weight than Brazilian mahogany but has a coarser texture.

Color: Reddish-brown

Source: African mahogany

Common Uses: General beam, door frame, and shelving timber

Density: 812.07 kg/m3

 

Khaya Wood

 

19. Ligneous Wood

The ligneous wood materials are bagasse, bamboo, cereal straw, and flax or hemp shives, obtained from the ligneous plants. It is very cheap and affordable.

Color: Light Brown

Source: Ligneous plants

Common Uses: Cupboard, Kitchen Cabinets

Density: More than 0.35 g/cm3

 

Ligneous Wood

 

20. Maple Wood

Maple wood is very strong, and hard, and has a high resistance to knocks. After being stained, it has a light, translucent appearance. Maple is available in Canada and is one of the hardest species.

It is straight-grained and is distinguished by irregular patterning, which can contain fiddle back and bird’s eye patterns. It is obtained with light brown heartwood color and thin white sapwood that can be tinged with reddish-brown.

Color: White with some reddish-brown hues

Source: Acer Saccharum

Common Uses: Flooring, Cabinetry, and Kitchen Accessories.

Density: 689 kg/m3

 

Maple Wood

 

21. Meranti Wood

Meranti Wood is very flexible wood with different subspecies and sources. The meranti wood species are utilized for residential utilization and it is imported to the United States from Southeast Asia.

Meranti is one of the easiest hardwoods to deal with, as it easily cuts, and machines process it just as sands.

a. Dark red meranti and red lauan are medium to dark–red-brown hardwoods used for interior and exterior joinery and for plywood.

b. Yellow meranti are yellow-brown hardwoods, used for interior joinery and plywood.

c. Light red meranti and white lauan, are pale pink to mid-red hardwoods, used for interior joinery and plywood.

Color: Pale-red to reddish/brown

Source: Tropical Shorea tree species

Common Uses: Molding, furniture, structure, window, etc.

Density: 710 kg/m3

 

Meranti Wood

 

22. Oak Wood

Oakwood is utilized for construction timber. It is mainly straight-grained and colors vary from light to medium brown.

A few times, it is called red oak because its autumnal foliage has more flecks and a defined-grained finish.

Oakwood is very heavy, hard-wearing, and very strong, so used for flooring, paneling, decking, etc.

 

Color: Pale-red to reddish/brown

Source: Oaktree

Common Uses: Flooring, paneling, decking, etc.

Density: 897 kg/m3

 

Oak Wood

 

23. Oak, European Wood

It is hugely grown in Europe and is a yellowish-brown hardwood utilized for furniture, interior, and exterior joinery, flooring, barrels, and fencing.

Color:  Pale yellow-brown

Source: European Oak Tree

Common Uses: Furniture, interior trim, flooring, boatbuilding, etc.

Density: 720 kg/m³

 

Oak, European Wood

 

24. Opepe Wood

Opepe wood is majorly grown and available in West Africa. It contains the color yellow to orange-yellow hardwood. It is utilized for heavy construction, marine, and freshwater construction, and for exterior joinery and flooring.

Color: Golden-yellow or orange-brown

Source: Nauclea diderrichii trees

Common Uses: Carving, interior trim, etc.

Density: 750 kg/m³

 

Opepe Wood

 

25. Okoume Wood

The heartwood of Okoumé contains a light grey-pink color, usually with a reddish shade. The sapwood is whitish-grey and normally easy to separate. It is only available in the forests of Gabon.

Okoume wood is softwood and has color salmon pink in color with a fibrous texture and an irregular grain that looks like light mahogany. Okoume trees mainly manufacture cylindrical logs, which are best for slicing and peeling and utilized to prepare veneer sheets.

Color: Pale pink to light brown
Source: Aucoumea klaineana
Common Uses: Furniture, cabinets, etc.
Density: 430 kg/m³

 

Okoume Wood

 

 

26. Pinewood

Pinewood is an inexpensive and more easily found option than traditional hardwoods. It is one type of pale wood that can vary from yellow to almost red in appearance. Pinewood is highly capable to withstand wear and denting, especially in high–traffic areas.

Color: Creamy White Hue / Yellow

Source: Pine Tree

Common Uses: Making doors, windows, partitions, decks, railings, paneling, etc.

Density: 990 kg/m³

Pine Wood

 

27. Pitch Pine Wood

A softwood pine has good strength and durability compared to major pines. The commercial-graded pitch pine is utilized for construction work.

Color: Reddish brown

Source: Pinus Rigida Tree

Common Uses: Pulpwood, crating, fuel, etc. Density: 590 kg/m³

 

Pitch Pine Wood

 

28. Poplar Wood

Poplar wood is a species of wood most commonly used in the making of furniture, cabinets, wooden toys, plywood, etc. It is pale, light, and very soft. It is majorly utilized in joinery, furniture interiors, packing cases, and preparing plywood.

Color: Whitish or greyish

Source: Tulip Tree

Common Uses: Pulpwood, crating, fuel, etc.

Density: 500 kg/m³

 

Poplar Wood

 

29. Redwood, European

Pinus sylvestris is grown in Scandinavia, the Baltic States, and the Russian Commonwealth. It is also normally found in the UK, where it’s known as Scots pine or British pine.

It has colored a pale yellowish-brown to red-brown softwood. It is also utilized for construction, joinery, and furniture.

 

Color: Reddish-brown or Yellowish-brown color

Source: Scandinavian Redwood
Common Uses: Decking, structural beams, furniture, etc.

Density: 520 kg/m³

 

Redwood, European wood

 

30. Sapele Wood

It is a deciduous tree only during a dry season in West Africa, with leaves that can grow up to 10 cm in size. It is also found in and grown in South East Asia and is a medium reddish-brown hardwood with a marked stripe figure, used for interior joinery, furniture, etc.

 

Color: Golden to dark reddish-brown

Source: Entandrophragma cylindricum
Common Uses: Furniture, conservatories, door frames, etc.

Density: 640 kg/m³

 

Sapele Wood

 

31. Sitka Spruce Wood

Sitka Spruce wood is obtained with close and straight-grained wood with a high strength-to-weight ratio.

Color: Light pinkish-brown

Source: Picea sitchensis
Common Uses: General construction, shipbuilding, and plywood.

Density: 347 kg/m³

 

Sitka Spruce Wood

 

32. Southern Yellow Pine

southern yellow pine is utilized for interior and exterior construction as it’s good to work with and finishes well. It has minimum defects.

Color: Light yellowish-orange to dark reddish or yellowish-brown

Source: loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), long-leaf pine (Pinus palustris), shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata), and slash pine (Pinus eliottii)
Common Uses: Pallets, crating, and packaging.

Density: 670 kg/m³

 

Southern Yellow Pine

 

33. Teak Wood

Teak wood is grown in Burma and Thailand. It has been hugely planted. It has the major color of golden brown hardwood, with dark markings that are utilized for furniture, interior, and exterior joinery.

Color: Tawny Golden

Source: Tectona grandis
Common Uses: Manufacture of outdoor furniture and boat decks.

Density: 740 kg/m³

 

Teak Wood

 

34. Utile Wood

Utile woods are planted and grown in West Africa. It has the color reddish-brown hardwood, utilized for interior and exterior joinery, furniture, and cabinetwork.

Color: Tawny Golden

Source: Tectona grandis
Common Uses: Manufacture of outdoor furniture and boat decks.

Density: 740 kg/m³

 

Utile Wood

 

35. Walnut Wood

Walnut wood has irregular waves and curls and rich dark tones that are made through a combination of rich dark heartwood and creamy brown sapwood. It is obtained with ranging grain patterns.

Color: Light brown to dark chocolate

Source: Juglans Regia
Common Uses: Furniture, musical instruments, carvings, trims, and veneers.

Density: 689 kg/m³

 

Walnut Wood

 

36. Western Hemlock Wood

Western Hemlock wood is majorly available in North America and is pale brown softwood, utilized for construction and joinery.

Color: Pale brown

Source: Tsuga Tree
Common Uses: Construction, roof decking, plywood, etc.

Density: 420 kg/m³

 

Western Hemlock

 

37. Western Red Cedar Wood

Western Red Cedar is majorly planted in North America and is a reddish-brown softwood, utilized for roofing shingles, exterior cladding, etc.

Color: Pinkish Brown

Source: Thuja plicata
Common Uses: Roofing shingles, exterior cladding, etc

Density: 330 kg/m³

 

Western Red Cedar Wood

 

 

38. Whitewood, European Wood

Whitewood is planted and grown in Europe, the Baltic states, and the Russian Commonwealth.

It’s a commercial grouping of white to pale yellowish-brown softwoods, utilized for construction, joinery, and flooring.

Color: White to pale yellowish-brown

Source: Silver fir (Abies alba) and Norway spruce (Picea abies).

Common Uses: Construction, joinery, and flooring.

Density: 480 kg/m³ when dried.

 

Whitewood, European Wood

 

This was for the Types of Wood.

 

 


 

  2. References  

1. Content Filter & Authenticity Checking Team, Dream Civil International

(Our team checks every content & detail to maintain quality.)

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