Harbor Types in Water Transportation : Requirements, Site Selection of Harbor

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A harbor may be defined as a partially surrounded water surface with more significant depth and this regionis not influenced by the action of winds or waves.

Harbor Types in Water Transportation are generally situated along the sea shore or river estuary etc. to promote navigation through the sea.





  1. Requirement of Harbor 

The essential needs of a harbor are mentioned below:

a. Good depth should be provided for the draught of ships using the harbor.

b. Anchorage should be adequate in the lowermost region of the harbor during high wind times.

c. Protection against waves should be good.




  2. Site Selection for a Harbor  

If the natural formations of the harbor are not accessible then it is important to construct an artificial harbor.

The site selected for a harbor should be established on some essential elements such as:

a. Marine conditions should be especially good without any troubles.

b. The foundation soil or sea bed is appropriately inspected whether it is qualified to take breakwaters against waves and other forces.

c. If there are Natural formations like mountains or islands, then it is more useful to choose a site nearer to that region.

d. Site should be cheap and construction materials should be effortlessly accessible.

e. Water must be fresh and shouldn’t contain any pollution.

f. Surrounding sites should be formed with factories and industries, then exports and imports of goods will take place positively.

g. The harbor should be smoothly accessible.

h. The size of the harbor should be big. Generally, it is determined on the basis of the total number of ships.





  3. Harbor Types in Water Transportation  

Harbors are classified into different types based on different conditions such as:

a. Safety required

b. Location

c. Usage


i. Classification of Harbor based on Safety Needed

The provision of safety or protection categorized the harbor into:

a. Natural Harbor

b. Semi-natural Harbor

c. Artificial Harbor


a.  Natural Harbor

Natural harbors are made unaffectedly by the preservation of mountains, bays, islands, etc., and are in service for a long time. So, development in terms of population, geographical features, etc. is quick in natural harbor regions.


Natural Harbor



b. Semi-Natural Harbor

Semi Natural harbors are even created naturally, but occasionally at the harbor entrance, manmade constructions are needed for more security against winds and waves.


Semi-Natural Harbor



c. Artificial Harbor

An artificial harbor or man-made harbor does not contain any natural protections and these protections are built artificially which are called breakwaters.

Breakwaters are the structures that prevent the inside water from storms and waves and keep the inside water still.


Artificial Harbor


ii. Types of Harbors Based on Location

The harbor’s classification based on location is:

a. Sea harbor

b. River harbor

c. Canal harbor


a. Sea Harbor

A sea harbor located along the seashore is known as a sea harbor. Seaports are of very big dimensions and the loading and unloading of goods are also accomplished in bigger quantities. Various countries are linked by these ports.


Sea Harbor


b. River harbor

River harbors are made in the rivers which ultimately link to the sea. So, these allow navigation inside a country from noncoastal areas.


River harbor


c. Canal Harbor

Canal harbors are even similar to river harbors but a canal is linked to the sea via a big river.


Canal Harbor



iii. Types of Harbor based on Usage

The harbors are classified into five types based on usage as follows

a. Commercial Harbor

b. Fishery Harbor

c. Military Harbor

d. Marine Harbor

e. Harbors of refuge


a. Commercial Harbor

Commercial harbors are those where the loading and unloading of cargo are done. Commercial harbor requires a larger area to speed up the operations and it is the busiest among the others.

Some commercial harbors are limited to loading and unloading single commodities like coal, crude petroleum, etc. only.

The repair works can also be carried out here but they should be quick.


Commercial Harbor


b.  Fishery Harbor

Fishery harbors are specially meant for cargo carrying seafood or aquatic animals.

They are always open to fishing ships for loading and unloading.

To preserve the seafood sufficient space is provided near the harbor.


Fishery Harbor


c. Military Harbor

Military harbors are used as naval bases, where warships are rested while there is no work in the sea or during repair works.

No other private ships should not enter this without permission.

Some large military naval vessels can carry aircraft so, a very large area of the harbor is required because of large vessels.


Military Harbor


d. Marina Harbor

Marina harbors are small harbors where moorings are provided for yachts and small ships. They are not suitable for large cargo.

The boats, ship repair works, and fueling is done in this harbor.

For transferring trailered boats into the water slipways are provided at the marina harbors.


Marina Harbor


e. Harbors of Refuge

A big region of harbors that are proper to shelter the ships during trouble situations like storms or any other natural calamities.

Harbors of refuge are made with big openings and they are easily available.

They deliver adequate anchorage to the vessels against storms and tides.


Harbors of Refuge





  4. Advantages of Harbor  

The advantages of the harbor are as follows:

a. It provides safe anchorage.

b. It provides ships sufficient room to turn and pass each other.

c. It permits the transfer of cargo and passengers between ships and the shore.



This was for the Harbor Types in Water Transportation.




  5. References  

1. Content Filter & Authenticity Checking Team, Dream Civil International

(Our team checks every content & detail to maintain quality.)




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