Artificial Stones

Artificial stones are also called as cast stones or reconstructed stones. These are not commonly used in ordinary building construction because of the heavy cost. Artificial stone can be moulded … Read More

Quarrying of Stones

Quarrying of stones is an art of extracting stones from the rock beds. The place from which the stones are obtained (by digging or blasting) is known as ‘Quarry’. Quarrying … Read More

Concreting Underwater Methods

Concreting underwater is a very complicated task. It may be required in case of deep foundations and marine works. Concreting underwater methods are briefly explained below. The placing of concrete … Read More

Types of Lintel

The lintel is also called a lintel beam. Lintel refers to the structural element that is provided at the lintel level of the building. We will discuss the types of … Read More

Total Station in Surveying

The total station in surveying is an instrument that is primarily designed as a combination of electronic transit theodolite, an electronic distance meter (EDM) and software that runs on an … Read More

Two Way Slab

In two way slab, the ratio of the longer span to the shorter span is less than two i.e.  Longer Span/Shorter Span <2 The load is carried in both directions … Read More

One Way Slab

The slab is the horizontal structural component that provides a flat and purposive surface. Such a surface may be floor, roof or ceiling. One way slab & Two-way slab are … Read More

Errors in Theodolite

Theodolite may be defined as the optical survey instrument that is used to measure the angles between the specified points both in the vertical and horizontal plane. Some errors in … Read More

Errors in Levelling

Levelling is defined as the branch of surveying that is essentially used for determining the relative height of the different points on, above and below the surface of the ground. … Read More

Global Sand Shortage

Shortage of sand throughout the world is Global Sand Shortage. You may be shocked but almost all countries are facing this problem. Many online media like The Guardian, BBC, Businessinsider, … Read More