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Civil Engineering Knowledge – Indian Standard

This information is vital for civil engineers during site inspections, tests, etc. Site knowledge about 12 topics is given in this post.

Knowledge

1.1 Grades of Concrete  

Grades of concreteMix Ratio ( C:S:A)
M51:4:8
M101:3:6
M151:2:4
M201:1.5:3
M251:1:2

 

1.2. Standard Conversion Factors  

1 meter3.28 feet
1 meter39.37 inches
1 meter100 cm
1 meter1000 mm
1 foot12 inches
1 inch2.54 cm
1 inch8 soot

 

1.3. Unit Weight of Civil Engineering materials  

MaterialUnit weight (kg/m³)
Cement1440 kg/m³
P.C.C2400 kg/m³
R.C.C2500 kg/m³
Cement plaster2000 kg/m³
Bitumen1340 kg/m³
Glass2500 kg/m³
Water1000 kg/m³

 

1.4. Clear Cover For Different R.C.C members  

MemberClear cover
Foundation75 mm
Raft FoundationTop = 50 mm

Bottom = 75 mm

Sides = 75 mm

Strap Beam50 mm
Beam25 mm
Column40 mm
Flat Slab20 mm
Slab15 mm

 

1.5. Basic Area Units  

1 Kanal = 20 Marla
1 Marla = 272.24 square feet
1 Kanal = 502 meter square
1 Marla = 25.10 square meter
1 Hectare = 10000 square meter
1 Acre = 43560 square feet

 

1.6. Unit weight of Steel Per Meter  

Diameter of SteelWeight kg/m ( d²/162)
6 mm0.222
8 mm0.395
10 mm0.616
12 mm0.888
16 mm1.578
20 mm2.466
25 mm3.853

 

1.7. Curing of Types Of Cement  

1. For O.P.C  ( Ordinary Portland Cement)7 days
2. Super Sulphate Cement10 days
3. Cement with minerals and admixtures14 days

 

1.8. Grades of Steel  

1. Mild SteelFe 250Tensile strength

250 N/mm²

2. HYSD

( High Yield Strength Deformed Bars)

Fe 415

Fe 500

415 N/mm²

500 N/mm²

 

1.9. Setting Time of Cement  

Types of CementInitial setting timeFinal setting time
OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement)30 minutes600 minutes
Portland Blast Furnace Cement30 minutes600 minutes
RHC ( Rapid Hardening Cement)30 minutes600 minutes
LHC (Low Heat Cement)60 minutes600 minutes

 

1.10. Grades of OPC ( Ordinary Portland Cement)  

33 Grade33 N/mm²
43 Grade43 N/mm²
53 Grade53 N/mm²

 

1.11. Crushing Strength Of Brick  

Type of BrickCrushing Strength
1. First class brick10.5 N/mm²
2. 2nd class brick7 N/mm²
3. 3rd class brick3.5 N/mm²

 

1.12 Water Absorption Of Brick  

1st Class Bricknot less than 15% by weight
2nd Class Bricknot less than 20% by dry weight
3rd Class Brick22% by dry weight

 

Note: Water Absorption for Building stones not ≥ 5% by weight

 

1.13. Knowledge About Brick -(India only) 

1. Standard size of bricks = 19 cm × 9 cm × 9 cm
2. Modular size of Bricks = 20 cm × 20 cm × 20 cm
3. No. of bricks in 1-meter cube Brick masonry = 500 Bricks

 

Read Also: Difference Between Flexible Pavement & Rigid Pavement

 

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