In the conservancy system of sanitation; different types of garbages or refuses are collected, conveyed and disposed off separately by methods like burning, filling, burying etc.
Refuses or garbages are collected in dustbins and are conveyed by trucks to the disposal point. Then, combustible & non-combustible portions are separated. Combustible portions like dry leaves, waste papers, furniture, plastics, etc are burnt and remained residue is buried. Non-combustible materials like sand, silt, clay, etc are used for filling the low-level areas. Human excreta is collected separately in conservancy latrines or privies and is carried by human agencies.
This method is also called the dry system of sanitation.
Advantages of Conservancy System of Sanitation
Some of the advantages of the conservancy system are:
a. Its initial cost is very low.
b. No need of water for flushing purpose.
c. No need of sewer pipes as in water carriage system.
d. Sewage quantity reaching the treatment plant before disposal is low.
Disadvantages of Conservancy System of Sanitation
Some of the disadvantages of conservancy system are:
a. This system fully depends upon human agencies. So, lack of manpower or strike by agencies can cause the unhygienic condition in the city.
b. For the burying of the residue ( remained part after burning of combustible portions) or excremental matter; the large area is required.
c. Labours are needed daily for the collection of waste.
d. Decomposition of excreta takes place before its removal. This causes nuisance of smell.
e. It is not suitable for most of the buildings.
f. It is unhygienic and causes unsanitary conditions.
g. This method also increases the risk of an epidemic. ( E.g. There is a risk of the outbreak of coronavirus if proper safety is not adopted by labours.)
h. Liquid wastes from lavatories may percolate into the ground causing the pollution of the groundwater table.