Total Station in Surveying

The total station in surveying is an instrument that is primarily designed as a combination of electronic transit theodolite, an electronic distance meter (EDM) and software that runs on an … Read More

Two Way Slab

In two way slab, the ratio of the longer span to the shorter span is less than two i.e. ┬áLonger Span/Shorter Span <2 The load is carried in both directions … Read More

One Way Slab

The slab is the horizontal structural component that provides a flat and purposive surface. Such a surface may be floor, roof or ceiling. One way slab & Two-way slab are … Read More

Errors in Theodolite

Theodolite may be defined as the optical survey instrument that is used to measure the angles between the specified points both in the vertical and horizontal plane. Some errors in … Read More

Errors in Levelling

Levelling is defined as the branch of surveying that is essentially used for determining the relative height of the different points on, above and below the surface of the ground. … Read More

Global Sand Shortage

Shortage of sand throughout the world is Global Sand Shortage. You may be shocked but almost all countries are facing this problem. Many online media like The Guardian, BBC, Businessinsider, … Read More

Principles of Surveying

The first step of any construction work is surveying and thus it is an important branch of civil engineering. Surveying is the art of determining the relative position of various … Read More

Specific Gravity of Cement

Cement is an important type of construction material that is necessary for almost all types of civil engineering works. Cement is in fact the main material of concrete technology and … Read More

Components of Bridge

A bridge is the civil engineering structure that spans horizontally between the supports primarily designed for withstanding the imposed vertical loads. The basic objective of bridge construction is to overcome … Read More